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her with the shield of the parent state. Her example became, thenceforth, more dangerous; and the united colonies steadily pursued towards her an unfriendly policy.

Mr. Williams' return to Providence was greeted by a voluntary expression of the attachment and gratitude of its inhabitants, which is one of the most satisfactory testimonies to his character. They met him at Seekonk, with fourteen canoes, and carried him across the river to Providence. This simple act of respect must have been highly grateful to his feelings. It does equal honor to him, and to his fellow citizens, who thus showed themselves capable of estimating, in a manner worthy of freemen, the services of a friend and public benefactor.*

We may suppose, that Mr. Williams, after his return, immediately endeavored to carry into operation the charter which he had procured with so much labor and expense. But it was a work which required time, to bring the in itants of the several settlements at Providence, Newport, Portsmouth and Warwick, to agree on a form of govern. ment, and unite as one colony. The charter prescribed no form of civil polity, and it was accordingly necessary to manage the negotiations between the towns with much delicacy and skill.

In the mean time, Mr. Williams had another opportunity to interpose his beneficent agency in favor of the colonists. The Narraganset Indians, exasperated by what they judged to be the murder of their favorite sachem, Miantinomo, were bent on vengeance, with the unrelenting ferocity of savages. They alleged, that they had paid wampum, to

depart the congregation at the ministration of the ordinance, or shall deny the ordinance of magistracy, or their lawful right and authority to make war, or to punish the outward breaches of the first table, and shall appear to the Court wilfully and obstinately to continue therein, after due time and means of conviction, every such person or persons shall be sentenced to banishment.Backus, vol. i. p. 150.

* This incident is related by Richard Scott, in his letter, inserted at the close of the “ New-England Firebrand Quenched.” Mr. Scott disliked Mr. Williams, and his comment on the transaction referred to is an instance of the effect of a man's feelings on his judgment respecting the conduct of others. “ The man,” he says,

being hemmed in, in the middle of the canoes, was so elevated and transported out of himself, that I was condemned in myself, that amongst the rest, I had been an instrument to set him up in his pride and folly.”

the amount of forty pounds, as a ransom for the chieftain's life. They therefore resolved on war with the Mohegans, until they should obtain the head of Uncas. The commissioners of the colonies, at their meeting in Hartford, in September, 1644, appeased their animosity for a while, the Narraganset sachems promising not to commence hostilities against Uncas until after the next planting time, and likewise after thirty days' notice to the government of Massachusetts and Connecticut.

The commissioners, this year, passed an act, forbidding any person to sell any kind of arms or ammunition to an Indian, or to repair any weapon for him, under a heavy penalty. This measure was called for by the rapid progress of the Indians in the use of fire-arms. The law had, it is probable, some effect, but like similar laws in regard to the Indians, in later times, unprincipled men found many ways to evade it.

The Narragansets soon commenced the war, and killed several of the Mohegans. An extraordinary meeting of the commissioners was held in Boston, in July, 1645, when it was judged necessary to send messengers to the sachems of the Narragansets and Mohegans, requiring them to suspend hostilities and come to Boston.

The messengers were informed by the Narragansets, that they were resolved on war. They accordingly returned to Boston, with a letter from Mr. Williams, informing the government, that the Narragansets would soon commence hostilities against the colonists, except at Providence and RhodeIsland, the Indians having, from regard to Mr. Williams, agreed to maintain a neutrality with these settlements.

The commissioners immediately resolved to raise a force of three hundred men,* to march immediately for the protection of the Mohegans. A part of the levy from Massachusetts marched accordingly. Two messengers were again sent to the Narraganset sachems, with directions to take Mr. Benedict Arnold with them as their interpreter. But they could not find Mr. Arnold at Providence, and learned that he dared not venture among the Indians without a guard. But Mr. Williams had been sent for by the

* From Massachusetts, 190; Plymouth, 40 ; Connecticut, 40 ; NewHaven, 30.

sachems, doubtless to advise them in this crisis. The messengers, therefore, solicited his aid, and he served them as an interpreter. By his mediation, Passacus,* the sachem, and other chief men, were persuaded to go to Boston, where a treaty was concluded between the commissioners and the sachems, by which the latter agreed to make peace with Uncas, and to pay the colonists two thousand fathoms of wampum, at different times, as a remuneration for their expenses in the war. This treaty was concluded in August, 1645, and the sachems left a child of Passacus, a child of his brother, and two other children of persons of note, as a security for the faithful performance of the treaty.

* He was a brother of Miantinomo, and succeeded him.

+ The following note, in Hutchinson, vol. i. p. 134, may be properly quoted here:

“ Uncas, the sachem of the Mohegans, was hated and envied hy the Narragansets, for his attachment to the English, and the distinguishing favors shown him in return. In 1638, having entertained some of the Pequods, after the war with them, and fearing he had given offence, he came to the Governor at Boston, and brought a present, which was at first refused, but afterwards, the Governor being satisfied that he had no designs against the English, it was accepted, and he promised to submit to such orders as he should receive from the English, concerning the Pequods, and also concerning the Narragansets, and his behavior towards them, and concluded his speech with these words: “This heart (laying his hand upon his breast) is not mine, but yours. Command me any difficult service, and I will do it; I have no men, but they are all yours. I will never believe any Indian against the English any more.' He was dismissed, with a present, went home joyful, carrying a letter of protection for himself and men through the English plantations, and never was engaged in hostilities against any of the colonies, although he survived Philip's war, and died a very old

man,

after the year 1680.

“ The Narragansets failed in the payment of the wampum, and in 1646, messengers were sent to them from the commissioners, but Passacus, their chief sachem, not attending, in 1647 the miessage was repeated, and he then pretended sickness, and sent Ninigret, a sachem of the Nianticks, to act in his behalf, and told the messenger, that it was true he had not kept his covenant, but added, that he entered into it for fear of the army which he saw, and that he was told, that if he did not set his hand to such and such things, the army should go against the Narragansets. When Ninigret appeared, he asked how the Narragansets became indebted to the English in so large a sum, and being told that it was for the expense the Narragansets had put them to by their breach of covenant, he then pleaded poverty, but the commissioners insisting on the demand, he

Thus was New-England saved, a second time, from a general Indian war, by means, in no small part, of the good offices of Mr. Williams. The small English army was disbanded, and the 4th of September was observed, by the colonists, as a day of thanksgiving to God. This measure was worthy of our pious ancestors. We may hope, that while they justly ascribed the praise of their deliverance to God, they felt some emotions of gratitude towards their exiled benefactor.

sent some of his people back to procure what he could, but brought two hundred fathoms only. They gave him leave to go home, and allowed him further time. The whole was not paid until 1650, when Capt. Atherton, with twenty men, was sent to demand the arrears, which was then about three hundred fathoms. Passacus put him off some time with dilatory answers, not suffering him to come into his presence. In the mean while his people were gathering together, but the Captain, carrying his twenty soldiers to the door of the wigwam, entered himself, with his pistol in his hand, leaving his men without, and seizing Passacus by the hair of his head, drew him from the midst of a great number of his attendants, threatening that if one of them offered to stir, he would despatch him. Passacus presently paid down what was demanded, and the English returned in safety. Ninigret, after this, began to stir up new troubles from the Nian. ticks, but upon sending Capt. Davis, with a troop of horse, into the Indian country, he was struck with a panic, and would not be seen by the English until he had assurance of his life, and then he readily complied with their demands, and they and the other Indians continued quiet many years, until by familiar intercourse, and the use of fire-arms, they became more emboldened, and engaged in the war in 1675, which issued in their total destruction. Records of United Colonies.

18*

CHAPTER XVII.

Letters to John Winthrop-organization of the government-vote

of money to Mr. Williams-agreement of several inhabitants of Providence-dissentions-Indian troubles.

We have now the pleasure of presenting the first of a number of unpublished letters, addressed to John Winthrop, the son of Governor Winthrop, of Massachusetts.* Mr. Winthrop resided, for several years, at Nameug, or Pequod, now New-London, in Connecticut. It appears from one of the letters, that Mr. Williams became acquainted with him in England ; and the correspondence which we shall introduce, will show that the friendship was strong and mutual. We cannot stay to offer comments on the letters. They relate to politics, literature, agriculture, and various other topics, while religion is diffused, like a grateful fragrance, through them all.

This and other letters are dated at Narraganset, or Cawcawmqussick, (now North-Kingstown,) where Mr. Williams, about this time, purchased an estate, and built a trading house, which he afterwards sold, to obtain money for his second visit to England.

“For his honored, kind friend, Mr. John Winthrop, at Pequod, these.

* Allen says of him, in his Dictionary, “His fine genius was improved by a liberal education in the Universities of Cambridge and of Dublin, and by travel upon the continent. He arrived at Boston, in October, 1635, with authority to make a settlement in Connecticut, and the next month despatched

a number of persons to build a fort at Saybrook. He was chosen Governor in 1657, and again in 1659, and from that period he was annually re-elected till his death. In 1661, he went to England, and procured a charter, incorporating Connecticut and New-Haven into one colony. He died at Boston, April 5, 1676, in the 71st year of his age. He possessed a rich variety of knowledge, and was particularly skilled in chemistry and physic. His valuable qualities as a gentleman, a christian, a philosopher, and a magistrate, secured to him universal respect.”

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