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ART. XVIII.-TAE USE OF THE LAW. earth, who being sanctified in Christ
The moral law contained in the Jesus, are gathered into one in him, ten commandments, and compre.
and are his body, the fullness of him hending all that is specifically re
that filleth all in all. This is comquired or forbidden in other moral monly called the invisible church. precepts of the Bible, is of per
Although the church of God is petual obligation on all men; and truly and properly a community of although believers are not under it holy persons, yet the whole body of as a covenant of works to be thereby men throughout the world profes. justified or condemned, yet they are sing the faith of the Gospel and bound by it as a rule of life, and obedience to God, and not destroycan have no evidence of their justi- ing the credibility of such profesfication beyond the degree of their sion by unholiness of life, or fundaobedience to it. As to them, so
mental error in doctrine, are by us also to all others, the law is de properly considered and called the signed to discover the exceeding church of God. This is commonly sinfulness of sin, and thus to con
termed the visible church. vince all men of the wickedness of
This visible church is not of netheir hearts and their just exposure cessity the true church of God, to its penalty, and to show them since that may appear to be such in their need of sanctification by the human estimation which is not such grace of the Spirit, and of forgive. in reality ; nevertheless Christ alness through the blood of Christ. ways has had, and ever shall have ART. XIX.—THE WORSHIP OF GOD, AND
a church in this world of such as THE SABBATH.
believe in him and make profession God is to be worshiped in spirit of his name, and which is his king. and in truth, in private families, in dom upon earth, where he has de. secret, and in the public assemblies posited his truth and instituted his of his people.
ordinances. As it is the plain dictate of reason Art. XXI.—THE COMMUNION OF Saints. and conscience that a portion of time set apart to the worship of God formed to the image of the Lord
Christians are spiritually conis of indispensable necessity to a life of holiness and piety—so God Jesus Christ, and have fellowship in by his own institution hath appoint
his graces, sufferings, death, resured one day in seven to be kept holy
rection and glory. Hence result unto him, which from the resurrec
their common character, interests tion of Christ to the end of time is and duties : hence they are bound the first day of the week.
to sympathize and to co-operate with The due observance of the Sab. each other in every thing conducive bath consists in a holy resting all to their mutual well being, so far as the day from all our worldly em.
the providence of God affords op. ployments and recreations, and in portunity for such sympathy and the worship of God and other duties co-operation. In families, in paradapted to promote holiness of heart ticular churches, and in other com. and life, including the reading and munities in which saints are more hearing of the word of God, prayer, liar opportunities are afforded them,
or less intimately associated, pecumeditation, and other devotional ex. ercises and as the case may be, and peculiar obligations are imposed in works of necessity and mercy.
upon them, mutually to abound in
affections and conduct, which have ART. XX.—THE CHURCH.
for their object the prosperity of The church of God consists of every individual and of the whole ; all true saints in heaven and on striving together to grow up into
the likeness of God, to the glory of Art. XXIII.—THE STATE or MAN AFTER
DEATH, AND THE RESURRECTION OF THE
DEAD. ART. XXII.—THE SACRAMENTS. At death the probation of all men
ceases, and their characters having The sacraments of the New Tes.
been formed, their account is closed tament are Baptism and the Lord's for the final judgment. Their bod. Supper, which, as signs and seals ies henceforth rest in the grave until of the covenant of grace, represent the heavens be no more.
Their the validity of its precious promises, souls depart from this world—the
are . istered only by ministers of the righteous going into a state of holi
ness and peace, the wicked into a Gospel.
state of unrestrained sin and hopeThe grace which is exhibited in
less suffering. these sacraments is not conferred
At the last day, the bodies of all by any power in them, nor does their efficacy depend on the piety be raised from the grave and be
men shall by the power of Christ or intention of the administrator, severally united to their soulsbut upon the work of the Spirit ful- those of the wicked unto dishonor, filling the gracious promises of the but those of the just unto honor, covenant to proper and worthy re
being conformed to the glorious cipients.
Baptism is to be administered in body of Christ. the name of the Father and of the
Art. XXIV.-THE LAST JUDGMENT. Son and of the Holy Spirit ; and God hath appointed a day in to all unbaptized adults who profess which he will judge the world in their faith in Christ, and to the in- righteousness by Jesus Christ; when fant children of any member of the all men shall appear before his church. As a fit emblem of moral judgment seat, that they may repurification, the outward element to ceive according to the deeds done be used in this ordinance is wa. in the body, whether they be good ter, the quantity of which or the or evil—that God may manifest the mode of its application not being glory of his mercy in the salvation essential to the validity of the sacra. of his people, and of his justice in ment.
the condemnation of the wicked. The Lord's Supper is a sacra. Then shall the wicked go away ment which believers are to cele- into everlasting punishment, and the brate, by the use of bread and wine righteous into life eternal. as a memorial, according to Christ's As Christ, by the certain persua. command, showing forth the sacri. sion of a future judgment, would fice of himself for sin; as an em. deter all men from sin and furnish blem of their spiritual life and of support and consolation to the rightthe blessings of his mediation; as cous, so by the uncertainty of the a seal of their engagements to his hour in which our Lord will come, service, and as a pledge of their he would excite us to activity and communion with him, and with one watchfulness, that we may always be another here on earth, and hereafter prepared to say—“Come, Lord Je. in his Father's kingdom.
sus; even so, come quickly." Amen.
NOTES FROM OVER SEA.*
We welcome every book which and if patriotism inspires the hope adds to our stock of substantial infor- that our growing intimacy with Eumation respecting the countries ropean natives may serve for the " over sea,
for the same reason gradual transfusion of the American which of late years has so considera- element among them, it should not bly multiplied this class of publica- less excite the apprehension that this tions. Mr. Clay in one of his speech. growing intimacy may lead to an es, alluding to certain foreign pecu- assimilation on the contrary part ; liarities and affinities of his adopted may tend to infect our young and state, said that he had sometimes susceptible country with the spirit of imagined Kentucky to have been those political and ecclesiastical insti. originally a part of the old world, tutions of Europe which are in diwhich at some remote period had rect antagonism to ours, and with been detached and floated to the those principles of social, industrial shores of the West. We have lived and educational economy, which to see this imagination almost real though cherished with a strange tena. ized in relation to the whole of the city in many of the countries beyond old continent. Steam has brought the Atlantic, the experience of ages it, if not into actual contact, at least has proved to be radically defecso near us that its proximity admits tive. The only antidote against of nearly the same practical illus. such an infection, is to contemplate tration which Cato employed to in those principles and institutions in dicate to the senate of Rome the their legitimate operations at home, dangerous neighborhood of her Af. and we shall hail as a public bene. rican rival, when after showing factor every writer who brings us them a specimen of fruit fresh as from over sea the results of judi. when it was plucked from the tree, cious observation, to enable us to do he told them it came from Carthage. so, at least till we have arrived at the The rapid trips of our steam packets point of repletion on these subjects, could bring us an invoice of Italian a point which we are satisfied the figs or French grapes almost as fresh. American public is very far as yet And we are sure that a specimen of from attaining. those oatmeal cakes on which the In this respect the volumes before Scotch farmers informed our author us are peculiarly valuable. They that their laborers thrived so well, are evidently the work of an intelli. would be pronounced by ours, after gent and inquisitive, of a liberal and crossing the Atlantic in the Aca. patriotic mind, too patriotic to be bedia, not much less eatable than guiled by the splendid absurdities and when warm from the oven. Now magnificent fooleries of aristocratic these facilities of intercommunica. Europe, too liberal to be insensible tion, while they have multiplied the to what is really valuable in the insti. number of travelers and of books tutions of other countries because of travel in Europe, have increas. they differ from those of his own. ed the need of them. It is true of There is no carping at little nation. nations as of individuals, that assim. al peculiarities, no quarreling with a ilation is the result of familiarity ; nation because they use a knife
when they ought to use a spoon, Notes from Over Sea. By the Rev. (vide Hamilton,) no grumbling at John Mitchell
. Published by Gates & mechanics because they venture to Stedman. New York, 1845.
treat him as an equal, (vide Dick. ens,) no authoritative judgment and reach she retiring slopes. Its arches are confident abuse of a whole people, feet. On the top of this erect a third from a mere hasty glance at the bridge, the length of which shall be eight surface of their society, (vide the hundred and seventy feet, and the numabove, and a legion besides.) Our ber of arches thirty live. 'Over this runs author does indeed enter largely walls coated on the inside with
the aqueduct. This is composed of two
thick into the peculiar institutions of Eu- layer of cement as hard as rock, and fort. rope, her church establishments, hering a trough of a depth sufficient for a pauper systems, the condition of her man to walk nearly upright in it. On the
lop of all is a covering of flagging stones, laboring classes, but his statements
each one foot thick, three feet wide, elerand reasonings are mostly based on en feet long, jutting over a foot on each the broad foundation of general facts, side, and forming a suitable finish to the from which his readers are at liber. stupendous work of which it is the crown.
The entire height is about one hundred ty to judge of the correctness of his
and sixty English feet. The stones are conclusions or to draw their own. all massive, handsomely wrought, and
We ought however to add in pass- fitted together without mortar. ing, that his volumes are not made suitable distance and look up. Those
“ Now place yourself in the valley at a up of mere disquisitions. They
many arches one above another, look like abound in descriptions of scenes and a huge net-work of stone. The upper objects, natural and artificial, in the range of them particularly, so numerous various countries through which he
and so high, are strikingly picturesque.
Look behind you and observe what subtraveled,
-as to which we have only limity there is in the gigantic shadows to object, that they are sometimes too which it casts upon the ground. There hurried and not sufficiently particu. impression. The country in iis vicinity.
are solitudes around it to highten the lar. Happily avoiding that minute
is romantic and without habitations. It style of description for which a cer- is invested too with the solitude which tain class of letter-writing tourists pertains to it as a relic of antiquity :have such a tiresome fondness, he
* Shadows, clouds and darkness rest upon occasionally falls into the opposite
it;' how much more upon its builders." extreme, and gives us mere hasty author's descriptive pictures of which
This is not the only one of our “ dashes” at interesting works of art and nature, as if he were only indi.
we may say, as Gibbon does of the cating their striking points to a com
Italian bistorian's description of the panion on the spot—instead of wri affrighted Roman nobles, trembling iing for the benefit of those who before the tribune Rienzi, “He have never seen them. However,
saw them and we see them."
What Botany Bay is to British there are many exceptions to this remark. Take the following ac
convicts, such ihe United States are count of the Pont du Garde at Nis.
fast becoming to British paupers. Hence the vast multiplication of pau
perism in the British isles, its causes “Conceive of two steep hills with a
and the operation of the systems valley of about two hundred yards wide, there employed to correct or supand a small river (the Garde) flowing press it, can not but be interesting to through it. Across the bottom of this
Americans. In Vol. I, chap. 15, valley, which is a flat bed of rock, construci a stone bridge sixty six feet high
our author discusses the comparative from the surface of the river, five hun. merits of the Scotch and English dred and twenty nine feet long, and have ing six round arches. The arch through
systems for the support of the indi. which the river passes is seventy three gent poor. teet span ; the others a little narrower. England makes legal provision for Now construct another bridge on the top the poor, and collects them into alisof this, of the same hight and fashion. houses. Scotland leaves hers to volun. Its piles and arches are placed precisely tary charity. She lays no poor tax, and over those of the lower, and correspond has no alms-house system. "Parisbes may with them. It is longer of course to assess and tax themselves if they choose,
as they often do, in aid of their poor, but ment which nature herself has made this is only one form of voluntaryism. Churches make collections at their doors, for their relief, in the spontaneous or otherwise, which are distributed by the play of those social affections and elders. Private charity is solicited by the sympathies which these legal provisneedy, and public begging is practiced in ions are directly calculated to rethe streets.
press. Against the English system it is “ Had the beautiful arrangement of na. chiefly objected, that it operates to ture not been disturbed, the relative afencourage pauperism, but he perti- fections which she herself has implanted nently remarks that “any mode of would have been found strong enough,
as in other countries, to have secured, charity operates more or less as a
through the means of a domestic economy bounty on the habits which lead to alone, a provision both for young and old pauperism,” and admitting its vast in far greater unison with both the comincrease in England since the adop. fort and the virtue of families. The cor
and demoralizing system of England tion of her poor laws, he observes might well serve as a lesson to philanthat this increase is largely owing thropists and statesmen of the hazard, to other causes. Besides that, in nay of the positive and undoubted misScotland the absence of legal pro
chief to which the interests of humanity
are exposed, when they traverse the provision has not secured the absence
cesses of a better mechanism instituted of pauperism. It is very great and by the wisdom of God, through the opeconstantly increasing. Moreover, ration of another mechanism devised by according to the plan adopted in the
a wisdom of their own."—Nat. Theol.,
Vol. II, ch. 4. latter country, the burden falls very unequally both on individuals and Now such theories, founded upon communities. The benevolent are abstract principles, are beautiful as beset with beggars.
soap-bubbles, and with deference “ The town of Ayr complains that it is to so great a name, we had well overrun with paupers, that it has double nigh added—as empty. They may its share of them compared with other have a truthful application in some towns, not excepting even large manufac- such “happy island of the blest” turing places, such as Glasgow, Dundee, and Kilmarnock. This state of things is
as the same Chalmers has portrayed attributed to the uncommonly liberal pro- in one of his most magnificent disvisions for the poor which are there made.
" where there is a peace The effect of these provisions has been, not only to increase the number of the and a piety and a benevolence indigent among their own population, but which put a moral gladness into to invite thither a great number of pau- every bosom, and unite the whole pers, and of those who are expecting to society in one rejoicing sympathy become paupers, from other places.'
with each other and with the benefi. Dr. Chalmers denounces the En
cent Father of all.” But they apglish pauper system on another
ply not to such a world as this ; ground-because, in taking the poor especially do they apply not to that under the immediate protection of
portion of it where the most comthe state, it contravenes the arrange. pletely artificial state of society
prevails that can be found between "I can not help reflecting with deep the poles, which we believe is ad, solicitude, that what Ayr is to the towns abont her, the United States, under the
mitted on all hands to be the island operation of the same general principle, of Great Britian,-a state of society are likely to be to all Europe. With our of which the legitimate tendency is large country and liberal policy, we are becoming the resort of myriads of foreign
to beget in the higher orders not poor. Why do we sleep thus over this only an indifference to the wants, alarming, this humiliating, this demor. but an insensibility of the very exalizing fact? Why do we consent to istence of the poorer classes. Here, be the general alms-house of the world, the provision which the state makes sitting siill, adopting no policy to check, for the needy is to be regarded, not nay, encouraging the mischief?" Vol. IV.