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Justin says:



p. 351.


" with

their directions been guided by a secret mysteries of Christianity were prayer-book.

done away, or, at least, had assumed an.

other form of manifestation, then, the Speaking of the administration clergy, not being competent themselves of the Lord's supper,

to conduct the exercises of religious wor“ Bread, and wine, and water are ship to the edification of the people, saw brought; and the president offers up

the necessity of providing themselves

with written formulas for their assist. prayers and thanksgivings according ance.

For this purpose, io his ability, con dúvauis aŭtā, and readily found to indile and transcribe the people respond, Amen.” The them. In this manner arose its formula. expression here is quite inconsistent ries, which are known under the name of

liturgies and missals, and wbich after. with the use of a form.

wards, in order to give greater authority Tertullian


“ We Christians to them, were ascribed to distinguished pray, with eyes uplifted, with hands

men, and even to the apostles themselves,

as their authors.'" outspread, with head uncovered, and without a monitor, because from the The foregoing remarks relate to heart.” Is this the manner of one liturgies in general. The history reading prayers from a book ? of the present English liturgy may

There is an allusion in the forego- be given in a single sentence. It is ing passage to the common attitude

an expurgated iranslation of the of prayer in the primitive church. It Romish. The chief points of differwith eyes uplifted, and with

ence between the Romish and Eng. hands outspread.” The ancient coins lish liturgies are thus briefly stated that were struck in honor of Con. by Hallam: stantine represent him as praying in this manner. He

“1. The liturgy was translated into appears, the vernacular language of the people. hands extended, and with eyes up. Formerly, it had been in an unknown turned, as if looking towards heav. tongue. Another common attitude

"2. Its acts of idolatrous worship to

saints and images were expunged. was that of kneeling, with the eyes

“ 3. Auricular confession was done closed ;

as Origen expresses it, away; or rather it was left to every man's closing the eyes of the senses, but discretion, and went into neglect.

" 4. "The doctrine of transubstantia. erecting those of the mind." It is

tion, or the change, at the moment of obvious that both these attitudes are

consecration, of the substances of bread inconsistent with the use of written and wine into those of Christ's body and forms.

blood,' was discarded. Liturgies had their origin in an

“5. The celibacy of the clergy was ignorant and degenerate age. The “ With these modifications the religion most ancient of which we have any of Rome became that of the church of knowledge, date back to the fifth cen. England. And to this day, her ritual, tury, or possibly to the latter part antisin, which Milton denominates 'an

crudely formed in the infancy of Protestof the fourth. The clergy, at this extract of the mass translated,' continues period, were notoriously ignorant with little variation to be the liturgy of and corrupt, unable to guide suitably and America" pp. 359, 360.

the whole Episcopal church in England the devotions of the people; and to assist them in their incompetence, lit It would be interesting to follow urgies were provided for their use. Mr. Coleman through his very able As a learned German writer ex and instructive chapters on the psalpresses it

mody and homilies of the primitive "When, in process of time, the distin. church; but so much time has been guished fathers of the church had passed given to the previous portions of the away, and others, of an inferior standing, book, that we must refer these to the arose in their place, with less learning consideration of the reader. Indeed, and talents for public speaking, -as barbarism and ignorance continued to over

we would refer the entire work to spread the Roman empire, and after the him. The notice we have taken of


done away:

it was not intended to supersede, but them, that they were the constiluted rather invite and promote, the study preachers of the Gospel. They of the work itself.

must be “apt to teach." They In but a single point, so far as must “ feed the church of God, we have observed, do we feel inclin. which he had purchased with his ed to call in question the soundness own blood.” They must “ hold fast of our author's positions. He states the faithful word, as they had been more than once-as the Germans taught, that they might be able, by do generally—that in the age of the sound doctrine, both to exhort and Apostles, there was no distinction be. convince the gainsayers.” It was tween clergy and laity. “All Chris. the elders who “ labored in word tians accounted themselves priests and doctrine ;' and it was for this of God, and between the church and reason especially that the churches its spiritual leaders, very little dis were required to make provision for tinction was known.” p. 257. their support, 1 Tim. v, 18.

If this only means that the terms Without doubt, the deacons and clergy and laily, clerici et laici, private Christians of that age were were not then in use, we shall not expected to do what they could, by dispute it. Nor is the question, in conversation and exhortation, 10 dif. this view, of any great importance. fuse the blessings of the Gospel. But if Mr. Coleman means to say Thus Stephen was employed, when that there was not, in the age of the he encountered the hostility of the Apostles, what was afterwards called Jewish rulers, and was put to death. a clergy, and what is so called now And thus privately Christians are among ourselves, viz pastors, teach- sometimes employed, in our own ers, elders, bishops, in distinction age; and should be much more frefrom the other brethren, and to quently than they are. But we find whom belonged appropriately the no evidence from Scripture, that performance of ministerial acts; the any deacon, or private Christian, position is contradicted, not only by in the apostolic age, performed what the New Testament, and the wri. would now be called ministerial acts. tings of the early Fathers, but by a Philip, to be sure, baptized at Samaconsiderable part of his own volume. ria and elsewhere; but Philip was We have no account of the appoint- an evangelist only a few years

after ment of elders in the church at Je- this, and he may have been crearusalem, but we know that there ted one, before he left Jerusalem. were elders there at a very early pe.. Some one of those who went with riod. (Acts xi, 30.) There were Peter from Joppa to Cesarea seems elders at Ephesus and Antioch, and to have administered baptism 10 Cor. bishops at Philippi. Paul and Bar- nelius and his family; but the probnabas “ordained elders in every ability is, that these brethren, one church” which they established or more of them, were elders or among the Gentiles. Titus also was evangelists. left in Crete, that he might ordain The earliest of the Fathers who elders in every city.” Among these describes, at length, the public wor. elders or bishops, there would be a ship of the Christians, was Justin diversity of gifts, some being spe- Martyr, in the first half of the seccially qualified for teaching or ond century, less than fifty years afpreaching, and others for adminis. ter the death of the apostle John. tering the government of the church. And he expressly ascribes the But it is evident we think, from what preaching, and the administering of is incidentally said of them, from the sacraments to the presiding pres. the qualifications required of them, byter. When the Scriptures have and from the instructions given to been read, he says, " the president, Vol. IV.


in an address, makes an application, tween minister and people is a and enforces an imitation of the mere human device, like the sign of excellent things” contained in the the cross in baptism ; then why lesson for the day. “ Then we all should it not be abandoned, and all stand up together, and offer up our Christians now-according to the prayers. After prayer, bread and plan of some-be regarded as alike wine are brought, and the president, religious teachers and ministers? * in like manner, offers prayers and We propound these questions for thanksgivings, according to his abil. the consideration of our author, and ity, and the people respond, saying, of others who adopt the same sentiAmen."

ment. Our own opinion is, that This statement, we are aware, is they have been led astray on this contradicted by the Pseudo Ambrose, point by their German guides, and in his commentary on Eph. iv, 11. have taken a position alike inconsis. But this commentary could not have tent with their own principles, and been written before the latter part with the teachings of the Gospel. of the fourth century ; and as the We have before said that, with author of it is unknown, his testi- the single exception here referred mony is not entitled 10 much credit, to, we regard the volume before us contradicted, as it is, by that of Jus- with high satisfaction. It is an able, tin and the Apostles.

learned, and conclusive vindication This is not the place to pursue the of a free and popular system of inquiry here entered upon; and yet church government, in opposition to we can not but think it one of very all prelatical and hierarchical claims; considerable importance. No one and that, too, on the ground of apos. supposes that every thing pertaining tolical and primitive usage. to church order and government is The value of the work is consid. definitively settled for us in the New erably enhanced, by the Introduction Testament, so that no allowance is from the pen of Dr. Neander. It to be made for circumstances, and is interesting to find this veteran no roon left for the exercise of Professor-in the opinion of some, judgment. And yet, the Scriptures the Coryphæus of ecclesiastical hisdo furnish us with some general out- tory-coinciding so generally, if not lines of ecclesiastical polity, from entirely, with the conclusions of the which, so far as they are clear and American divine. plain, we are not at liberty to depart. We can not take our leave of the It is this which gives so inuch inter volume before us, without again be. est and importance to our inquiries speaking for it a general and an ear. respecting the church organization nest persual. It is one of the few of the Apostles. We look into these books-among the many now issu. things, not as mere matters of anti- ing from the American press—which quarian curiosity, but that we may must not be laid upon the shelf. It be instructed and directed. We in. is worthy to be read and studied ; quire, that we may learn, from the nor can it be studied by a serious teaching and example of the inspir. and candid mind without much prof. ed Apostles, what God has ordained. it. Now, if the Apostles made no distinction between ministers and people,

# The officers of a church are so far but all Christians were priests of distinguished from the people, that they

have official rank and authority. The God alike, and the distinction refer- evangelists have no such distinction; yet red to, like other corruptions, grew they are entitled to respect and affection up in an age subsequent to the

for their works' sake.' Neither class of Apostles; then why should it be

ministers is separated from the common

brotherhood by a peculiar sacred character, continued ? If the distinction be. either ens absolutum or ens relatum.-ED.


In a former article we proved, or hardly be called a constitutional arclaimed to have proved, as conclu- gument which justifies one infraction sively as if the words of the Constitu- of the Constitution by pointing out tion were express to that effect, that another which has been committed under the second Section of Arti- with impunity. There is another cle fourth, the citizens of each state point, however, which we are unwilhave the right of free ingress into ling to leave altogether unnoticed, on every other. We exposed the falla- which we subjoin a few remarks. cies and absurdities involved in the We have alluded to a case decided proposition that a state may neverthe- in the Supreme Court of the United less in the exercise of her police power States which has been supposed to exclude from her territories persons, favor those doctrines with respect 10 whether citizens or not, whose pres- the police power on which reliance is ence she considers dangerous to her placed in justifying the laws of South peace; and, commenting upon the al- Carolina. The Court in that case, legation that examples of the actual speaking of the distribution of powers exercise of such a power are furnish- between the State and General Goved in the quarantine laws and in cer- ernments, took occasion to assert in tain provisions of the poor laws, we strong language the complete aushowed in respect to the former that thority of the States over all subjects they are not at all in conflict with the within the range of mere municipal Constitution, that they are in their legislation or internal police; and innature and operation essentially dif- sisted that the power of legislation on ferent from a law of exclusion, and these subjects had not been transferfurnish therefore no analogy in sup- red to Congress nor shared with it. port of such a law. And we' had But they expressly admitted that prepared an argument leading to a though the power of legislating was not similar conclusion with respect to the given up, yet the states were subject poor laws. At this point however, we to restraints in the manner of exercise were obliged to suspend, somewhat ing it; as they could not but adinit, abruptly, our remarks, expecting 10 unless they intended to assert that resume them in the January num- the states were competent to make any ber. But we are anxious to close a law whatsoever which should “con, discussion already extended far be- cern the welfare of the state or any yond our original design, and as its individual within it, and whose operacontinuity has been broken by so long tion should be within the limits of the an interruption, we have thought it state, and upon the persons or things best to leave untouched the argument within its jurisdiction :" for such are to which we have referred, and con- police laws according to the definition densing as much as possible what we of the court. The point decided was had intended to say further upon the simply this, that the law whose valaw of the case, to pass on to topics of lidity was in question was not a law a different nature, connected with the assuming to regulate commerce; if inquiry we have proposed. We have it had been it would have been void, taken this course with less reluctance, whether in conflict with any existing because the allegation respecting the law of Congress or not, for the reapauper laws, if we concede all it son that the power to legislate on that claims, has but a remote and indirect subject is exclusively in Congress; bearing upon our main position. A mere analogy can not overthrow a

City of New York vs. Milne--11 Pe. positive demonstration; and that can ters, 139.


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but being a mere regulation of inter same doctrine; as also does Mr. nal police and not of commerce, it Rhett of the House in his attempted was within the power of the state vindication of South Carolina. And and not void unless made so by actual this we shall find, notwithstanding the conflict with the Constitution, or a hue and cry about the omnipotence constitutional law of Congress. The of the police power, is the ultimate whole case has been shockingly per- and sole ground of defense. For it verted, though it must be conceded is seen, it is too obvious not to be that a single sentence in the decision, seen, that neither the police power taken alone, is open to a misconstruc nor any other power, except that of tion which might make it assert an the despot, even in a state entirely in. unlimited police power in the States. dependent, is competent to imprison,

We shall consider it therefore es scourge and enslave free citizens, so tablished that South Carolina has no long as they obey the laws and comright to exclude from her territories mit no offense. Strike out of the any class of the citizens of Massa- law in question the prohibition of enchusetts or of any other state, and trance, and let it simply enact that that her law so far as it attempts such every free negro within the state, not exclusion is unconstitutional and void, being a native of it, shall be forthand no law. Its violation, conse with seized and consigned to prison, quently, is no crime, and that part of and kept there till he will consent to it which inflicts punishment for that be banished from the state, and, violation is in like manner against without the forms of accusation or the constitutional guaranty of privi- trial, in certain contingencies over leges, and void ; void alike whether which he may have no control, shall the punishment be mild or cruel, be sold as a slave for life, and not whether inflicted summarily and Governor Hammond would without any of the forms of law, or think of justifying it. Such acts, it as the sentence of a court after a is felt, by whatever name called, for fair trial and conviction.

whatsoever purpose committed, whieIn resting our argument, as we ther of state necessity, convenience have, solely upon the fact that the or amusement, whether dictated by law in question is a law of exclusion, fear, by hatred, or by caprice, are we have but accepted the issue pro- nothing else than tyranny, palpable, posed by South Carolina herself, and unmitigated and odious. The only insisted on by those who have made ground which can be taken is that themselves most conspicuous in her which is taken; that a state has the defense. Her law is entitled, ' An right lo exclude, and therefore to use Act to prevent free persons of color any means which it may


profrom entering the state.' The capi- per to enforce the exclusion; has the tal provision in it is the prohibition power to make entrance into the of such entrance. The imprison- state an offense, and consequently to ment, stripes and slavery of which it prevent or punish at its discretion the authorizes the infliction are made commission of the offense. * In fallo consequent, as we have seen, in ex- ing back therefore upon this position, press terms, upon entrance into the we regard South Carolina as disa state contrary to the act. The reso- tinctly abandoning all other grounds Jutions of her legislature, we have of defense; abandoning especially also seen, assert expressly as the basis the doctrine, if it ever was maintain. of her action, the power to exclude ed, that she can justify, as a mere from the state any persons, whether police regulation for the governcitizens or not, whose presence may

* This subsidiary proposition, we may be dangerous to her peace. Judge remark, has under the Constitution im. Berrien and Mr. Walker in the Uni- portant limitations; but we are obliged ted States Senate maintained the

to let that pass.

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