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months, however, one of these fam. degraded class of religionists, who ilies quitted the island. From this are doing incalculably more to fostime may be dated the permanent ter ignorance and superstition than and successful establishment of mis. they could possibly do, were they sions in Jamaica. " The number so disposed, to eradicate them. of missionaries was from time to The denomination as it now exists, time increased, so that in 1824 is an off-shoot from the larger Bapthere were four Moravian stations, tist churches in which the leader occupied by an equal number of and ticket system” prevails. The missionaries; 8 missionaries and original “native Baptists” had been stations belonging to the Wesleyan nearly absorbed by the churches of Missionary Society; and five sta the British Baptist missionaries, and tions, superintended by an equal had only recently reappeared in number of missionaries of the Bap- force. They numbered in 1842 tist Missionary Society;"—total 17. some fourteen preachers, and about In 1831, the number of missionaries 10,000 members and inquirers. had increased to, “ of Presbyteri Their preachers for the most part ans 4 ; of Wesleyan Methodists 16; are old leaders from the British of Baptist missionaries 16; of Mo. Baptist churches, who have been ravian missionaries 8;"_total, 44. expelled, for misconduct, or have In 1841, there were “Presbyteri. quarreled with their ministers and ans 13; Wesleyan Methodists 29; seceded. They have taken their Baptist missionaries 29; Moravian classes with them, baptized them missionaries 12;” to which add, the into churches, and installed themIndependents 8; Congregationalists selves as their spiritual guides. 5; Wesleyan Association 5;(?) In the following extract Mr. Phil. total, 99.—pp. 105, 6, 7, 9, 10. lippo gives the number of those who

The progressive growth of the are, as he supposes, in Christian Jamaica missions is here indicated. conimunion with the various de. Their efficient operations commen. nominations. ced in 1817. In 1824 there were

" As an additional evidence of the reseventeen missionaries. In 1831 ligious transformation which has taken there were forty four missionaries. place in this part of the missionary field, In 1841 there were ninety nine mis

let us contemplate the numbers that have

been hopefully converted 10 Gud since sionaries.

the introduction of the Gospel, together The church of England is estab with the multitudes who are just awukened lished by law. Its early ministers

to a concern about their souls, and the

change will appear still more surprising seem for the most part to have been

and glorious. the merest hirelings, and such many - in 1842 not less than 23.000 negroes have continued to be till quite a and their descendants, are reported as recent period. Prior to 1816 there

being united in Christian fellowship with

the Wesleyans. In the absence of exwas a rector in every parish, with

press data on which to ground an accuan average of 19,000 souls to each.

rate calculation with respect to some of Since then they have increased in the denominations, it may be said, that numbers and efficiency, and in 1841,

about 5000 are connected with the Mo

ravians, 7000 with the Scottish Missionincluding eight missionaries of the

ary Society, (Presbyterians,) about 2000 Church Missionary Society, num with the London Missionary Society, bered seventy four ministers, among

1000 with the American Congregationalwhom are many excellent men.

isis, 4000 with the Wesleyan Methodist

Association, and 30,000 with the Baptist In the enumeration of " ministers Missionary Society, making an aggregale now employed on the Sabbath in of 72,000 souls, exclusive of those concarrying on divine worship," Mr.

nected with the Church Missionary So

ciety, and such as are under the care of Phillippo includes those of the “

evangelical clergymen of the church of tive Baptists," a most vicious and England, which will increase the gross

na

amount of real converts to upwards of Mr. Caudler at 6000, and there re100,000, fully one third of the entire

main 44,000 under the care of black populaiion of the island. But in addition to these, let the multitudes that

evangelical clergymen” in the es. have died since the commencement of tablishment. What proportion these missionary operations be taken into the bear to the whole number of cler. calculation, and estimating the number at the rate of 25 per cent., iaking allow. gymen, Mr. Phillippo does not tell ance for the great mortality of the slave us; but Mr. Knibb, one of Mr. P.'s population, and the number can not be most sympathizing brethren, in a less than 50,000, thus making the grand recent speech from the platform of from the power of Satan unto God, chiefly Exeter Hall, estimated the whole within the short space of thirty years.

number of persons attending the “ Connected with most of the denomi. established churches of Jamaica at nations, are persons called respectively fifteen thousand !* The truth probmost of whom are considered 10 atford ably lies midway between these pleasing indications of piety. The num. extremes. ber of probationers attached to the Wes Second. “ Fifty thousand” are leyan denomination may be estimated at

estimated to have died in faith since 2000; the Moravians, about 2000; Scottish Missionary Society, 2000; the Lon. the establishment of the mission. don Missionary Society, 2000; the Amer. It is evident that in 1824, when ican Congregationalisis, 1000; the Wes there were only seventeen agents leyan Association, 2000; the Church of in the field, there could have been England, and Church Missionary Society, 5000; the Baptists, 21,111; which with but a few thousand, say five thouthose of other

' denominations will make sand, professing Christians in the about 50.000. Thus it will be found that the grand total of professing Christians, Mr. Phillippo says,

island. Referring to this period, connected with the different denominations in Jamaica since the commenrement

"A new era bad dawned upon Jaof mission ary efforts to the present time, maica, and a change was gradually taking is about 200,000 souls.

place, which in the short space of about “Surely, at such a recital every pious iwenty years has produced results prob. and benevolent heart must leap for ably unprecedented in any age or counjoy, and exclaim wiih adoring gratitude, ery."-p. 106. * What hath God wroughi!” Two hun. dred thousand souls converted from hea

The ratio of the increase of the thenism and savage darkness, to the only churches is indicated by that of the true and living God! Two hundred thou: missionaries, and their rank growth sand brands plucked from the fire, and multitudes more inquiring the way lo

has been since the year 1831. As Zion with their faces thitherward! Then a proof of this, we incidentally learn think of the value of one soul.”

by a table on page 112, that the This is a very remarkable, and baptisms by the missionaries of the

British Baptist Missionary Society, quite a characteristic passage. First. The gross round num

from the year 1835 to 1842, inclubers of those supposed to be in sive, were in round numbers twenty

five thousand !-being an average church communion, are set down as“ real converts.'

Of the accu

of more than a thousand to each racy of the estimates we will give missionary in the field during the but a single illustration. The Church greater part of that period. The (of England) Missionary Society but we estimate them at 3000, which

numbers for 1841 are not given, and the evangelical ministers of the is the mean between those for 1840 establishment, are estimated to have and 1842, which are set down reabout 30,000 members and 5000 inquirers under their care-add for spectively at 4684 and 2695. children two fifths, and ihere will

In the year 1840, John Caudler, be 50,000 persons; subtract the

an excellent minister of the Society number connected with the Church

* Mr. K. can not mean this. The Missionary Society, estimated by published reports may err.

p. 111.

of Friends in England, made a age darkness, to the only true and laborious tour of the island and col. living God." lected much valuable information. Has Mr. Phillippo been “twenty He states that there were then at- years a missionary in Jamaica," tached to the Baptist mission 21,777 and does he not know what is meant church members, and 21,111 in- by an “inquirer ?" On page 146, quirers-quoted by Mr. Phillippo, in explaining the ticket and leader

system, he tells us, From the table on p. 112, already “ Tickets are oblong pieces of card alluded to, it appears there were paper, containing the daie of the year,

ihe initials of the different months or during the five years ending with 1810, 18,691 baptized ; 1,631 re

quarters, and sometimes a passage of

Scripture, which are given to members and stored; 1,934 excluded. From the inquirers-to inquirers to secure their regu. baptized, deduct 10 per cent. for lar attendunce on the rurious means of deaths, 1,869; and the excess of the grace, to bring them under strict spiritual excluded over the restored, 304 =

supervision, und to afford he minister an

opportunity of seeing them personally 2,173, and 16,528 remain as the once a quarter, when such tickets are re. · bona fide increase, which subtract newed or exchanged, and to enable him to from 21,777, the number of mem

ascertain the regularity, or otherwise, with

which they discharge their external duties. bers in 1840, and we have 5,219

“Whenever any of the more private as the number of communicants in members succeed in awakening religious 1834.

concern in the minds of others, they usuIf the other denominations have ally introduce them 10 the class to which

they themselves belong, and to the house increased in the same ratio as the of God. After a term of probation such Baptist churches, there could not individuals are usually brought up to the have been more than 20,000 or

minister by their respective leaders, ils nero 23,000 professing Christians in Ja. for tickets, and to be enrolled as inquirers,

recruits (so sometimes pleasantly called) maica in 1831. In 1813, nine years the minister at the same time conrersing after, they are estimated at 100,000, with them and endeavoring to ascertain and those who have died in the faith

their sincerity." are set down at 50,000.

The leader brings ihe The Sandwich Islands mission cruit” to the minister, who has a was established in 1820. In its last conversation with him ; gives him a report, it returns as the number of ticket, before receiving which he church members, 22,650, and the pays his “duty” of 124 or 25 cents, total number of deaths from the and he is enrolled inquirer. commencement of the mission, These tickets are exchanged once 3,856—about 17} per cent. of the a quarter, at which time the minis. membership, which would give in ter“ sees the inquirer, and perhaps this island a total of deaths of several hundred more on the same 17,500; but suppose it to be 20.000, day, and these persons, sufficiently or even 25,000, and the estimate awake to the concerns of religion, is in excess an hundred per cent.

or desirous of the credit of belong. Let it be remembered the popula. ing to some chapel, to pay their tion of the Sandwich Islands has duty,” and exchange their tickets, been decreasing during the whole are classed as "souls converted period, while that of Jamaica has from heathenism and savage dark. during the former part been slowly, ness, to the only true and living and during the laiter part rapidly God," as “ brands plucked from the increasing.

fire.” It surely can excite no wonThird. “ The inquirers,” like- der, that many regard the tickets wise put down at 50,000, are spo. they receive as the evidences of ken of and enumerated as - souls their piety, and their passport to converted from heathenism and say heaven !

new re

an

of

Mr. Phillippo closes the passage Omitting the Jews and Catholics, upon which we are commenting, there are, according to this compu. with, "and multitudes more inquir. tation, 231,000 of the population of ing the way to Zion with their faces the island, who are the recipients thitherward."

of some sort of instruction in the These are not the technical inqui. Christian religion. From these, derers who are included in the grand duct two fifths for children under total of souls converted. They are fifteen years of age, and it will not enrolled inquirers. “Multitudes,” be pretended there are any such in in Mr. Phillippo's vocabulary, has the Jamaica churches, with here an expressive signification. He does and there a few solitary exceptions, not deal in units. His cypher sel. and there are left about 138,000 dom descends below thousands. persons over fifteen years age, Who, or where these multitudes in some sort nominally connected are, we are unable to tell; we will with the Christian churches in the however allow Mr. Phillippo the island, not as members, but as more benefit of them in the estimate we or less regular altendants22,000 are about to make.

less than according to Mr. Phillippo The population of Jamaica, ac are living within their pale, as “souls cording to the late census, is about converted from heathenism and sav. 400,000. Mr. Caudler and Mr. Phil. age darkness to the only true and lippo estimate it at the same num- living God.” ber. Deduct two fifths for persons

Mr. Caudler's estimate is very under fifteen years of age, and there liberal. We are quite satisfied it is remain 240,000 as the adult popu. too large ; but admitting its correct. lation of the island. From this num. ness, what shall we say of Mr. Phil. ber subtract the 150,000 estimated lippo's, and what of the Jamaica by Mr. Phillippo to be Christians, churches as he represents them ? with the 10,000 members and in. We are told on page 112 in what quirers in the native Baptist chap. manner many of these thousands els—which to be consistent he must have been gathered into the visible include in his total, as he associates church. their ministers with the missionaries

Among the Baptists, although each of other denominations—and there individual previously undergoes a rigid remain 80,000 persons over fifteen examination, members are often added years of age, not in communion by 100 and upwards at one time. In

some cases 200 persons have been added with any church. And of these, to a single church in one day; 400 were there are “multitudes inquiring the once added in one year to the church at way to Zion, with their faces thith, Spanish Town; and at Brown's Town erward.”

and Bethany, in St. Ann's, as many as

700 and upwards were baptized and reLet us compare this estimate with ceived into fellowship during the same another on page 112, made by John space of time. In some of the larger Caudler two years previously. Af- churches the additions have averaged 200

each for several years past." ter giving the probable numbers of all ages in nominal connection with In all these churches the leader the dissenting bodies, he adds : and ticket system, which has been

“We have thus a total of 185,000 dis- so strongly condemned by the missenters from the established church in sionaries of the Presbyterian, IndeJamaica, who may be said to be living under some religious care." He esti pendent, and Congregational de. mates those attending the services of the nominations, as an extremely cor"church of England 46,000, Jews 5,000, rupting though very powerful enRoman Catholics 1,000—total 237,000. gine, is in vigorous operation. Leading a population of at least 163,000, who have neither schools nor religious in

It is generally admitted that in struction of any kind."

New England the community is more Vol. IV.

4

extensively leavened with the Gos. spends perhaps ten Sabbaths in the pel than any

other of the same ex quarter, in his own hut, or at his tent in the world, and it is supposed neighbors'. that one in six of the population

They identify both their interest and there are members of the visible their happiness with the cause of God. church. In Jamaica, with an area The performance of their religious duties

is their meat and drink. as large as Massachusetts, and a

With regard population as large as Connecticut that they take pleasure in her stones,

to Zion it may be almost literally said, and Rhode Island, three in five of and savor the dust thereof.'”-p. 137. the adult population, or two in five

“ Next to the salvation of his own soul, of the whole population are Chris

a really converted man is anxious for the

salvation of the souls of others. This tians !

anxiety is manifested in an extraordinary Much time and pains are devoted degree by the churches of Jamaica. It to the presumptive evidences of the is evidenced by the whole tenor of their purity of Jamaica Christianity-of conduct. Their feelings are strong, and

they can not but speak of the things the spread of which Mr. Phillippo they have seen and heard.'”—p. 143. says:

"To these evidences of genuine piety “It recalls to our remembrance the may be added another, without which

the former would be but of little avail. events of apostolic lines, when superstition burnt her books on the altar of truth,

They dedicate themselves to God, in body, when the idols of the healben fell, and soul, and spirit, and unite their efforts

with their contributions and prayers. the throne of satan trembled. Completely verified was the prediction—'a

Among some of the denominations, and people whom I have not known shall

probably in a greater or less degree serve me; so soon as they hear of me,

among all, it is ihus with inquirers and they shall obey me, and the strangers

catechumens, as well as members. A shall submit themselves unto me.'

negro convert can not but tell of " how

great things the Lord hath done for him." We must be content to select on. • The Jamaica churches in general are ly a few from the many passages

essentially missionary churches, and each

individual of wbich they are composed, we had marked with exclamation

regards it as a sacred duty to do somepoints.

thing to promote the glory of God in the “ Some are seated in the house of God

salvation of his fellow men. Every one an hour or more before the service com especially aims at the conversion of those mences, and on the morning of the Sab.

with whom he is connected-his relabath almost all are in their places before

tives, his friends, bis children, his serthe minister enters the pulpit. Like Cor

Male and female, young and old, nelius to Peter, they seem to say, · Now,

rich and poor, are thus employed. They therefore, we are all here present before are not only all at work, but it might alGod to hear all things that are command most be said, always at work-not only ed thee of God.' The services of God's every day, but almost every bour of the house are evidently their delighetimes

day. The work of God is their employof refreshing from the presence of the

ment, not their recreation. And what. Lord.' Pleasure beams in every eye, and

soever their hands find to do, they do it animates every countenance. Their be

with their might,' taking advantage of havior is serious, suited to the place and

every favorable occurrence that presents the occasiop; whilst usually their atten.

itself. Whether in the market, in the tion is remarkable, occasionally expressed house, or in the public road, they seldom by responses, and other signs of interest neglect an opportunity of speaking a and approval. In hundreds of instances

word for God, and this they do with some of these poor creatures have trav.

cheerfulness, and without hesitation or eled fifty, miles to enjoy the advantages apology."-pp. 145, 6. of a single Sabbath."-p. 137.

On page 147, Mr. Phillippo thus Such journeys are made, perhaps describes a member of his church once in a quarter, to change the in Spanish Town :ticket, and in its progress the pil. “ Though scarcely possessing sufficient grim passes by some eight or ten means for her support, she has devoted chapels of other denominations, but the last twenty years of her life almost

wholly to the work of God. It is her instead of going to them when not meat and drink. From day to day, and attending his own chapel," he from year to year, is she found inviting

vants.

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