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ing of a well furnished host of Pu. the contact of society and an inritan ministers, and our country spiring example. is safe ; its songs of liberty shall If the views we have advanced swell forth in sweeter notes ; truth are correct, and for their truth we shall have free course ; and the over- appeal to all who have resided on whelming influence of an intelligent the soil, and mingled in the scenes Christianity-illustrated in the holy of western life, then it seems to fol. living, the pure example, the free low with the certainty of a corollary spirit of living churches, owned and in mathematics, that it is an indis. blessed of God—will do for the pensable part of the means for evangroveling, ignorant, and servile pop- gelizing the West, that facilities ulation that flows in upon us from should be furnished for educating the old world, what the personal thoroughly upon the ground, the efforts of an army of transient teachers and ministers by whose preachers, or flying laborers, can agency the work is to be accomnever accomplish. Romanism, if bro- plished. ken down, and banished from our Local circumstances and relations free country, i
, is to be broken down by work out singular transformations the presence and influence of our free of character, and with singular rainstitutions—by the Gospel exhibited pidity. Had the pilgrims and their in its transforming effects upon so descendants continued to dwell in ciety-by showing a more excellent the crowded cities and narrow way in the life and prosperity of homes of the father land, who needs those embracing its truths in their the spirit of inspiration to teach him purity. This is the living epistle on what would have been their dissimwhich Paul relied for his highest in- ilarity to the present population of strumentality in the world's conver New England ? sion. Every church, thus planted The causes that combine to proand sustained, is a light placed where duce change of taste, character and it must be seen-is the leaven in habits, in our western population, are society, by which the lump is to far more numerous than any that be leavened. The hardened, the existed in the early settlement of stupid, the bigoted, and corrupt New England. Among these, the devotee, may refuse to read. His intermingling, in the population, of priest may burn the Bible and the people of every conceivable taste tract which charity placed in his and habit, is far from being the hand. He may be too deaf to hear least. The results indicate a more the argument which affection presses rapid change than most persons upon his understanding, and too blind would anticipate. The sturdy old to perceive its conclusions ; but these Puritan character does not indeed living, free, and devout churches are rapidly pass away. The influence before him and around him-amid of education, and early moral cultheir members he moves, and with ture remains, and furnishes a field them transacts the business of life where the “good seed” may be from day to day. If his own per sown with hope. But the free air sonal bigotry shall have closed all they breathe, far away from the rethe avenues to his soul, his children straints of religious teaching and mingling in the common school, and well organized society, modifies watching the elasticity of their spirits essentially their temper and habits. who breathe the air of religious It frequently occurs that those, who liberty, will be, sooner or later, im- in the land of their birth were in bued by the same spirit ; and what the lowest conditions of society, can not be done by precept and ar. suddenly find themselves standing gument, will yet be accomplished by at its head. This growth, though
not always in accordance with the Nor have we taken in the whole ordinary laws of progress, or a prop view, when we have contemplated er regard to due proportions, is this want of adaptation to a new yet absolute as well as relative. field of labor in the youthful mis
Men who in the circles where sionary. Many indeed there are of they had their origin, would have sufficient elasticity of mind, to acever stood back, relying upon others' commodate themselves with surprisopinions, are not unfrequently, in a ing facility to the aspects and connew settlement, thrown upon their dition of society in a new country. own resources, and compelled to There are however men of great think and act; and hence, by the excellence, of pure classic taste, and same law of necessity, they are refined sensibilities, and to whom forced to read, observe, and resort success would have been certain in a to all available sources for informa. community homogeneous with them. tion. Hence it is that the West selves, who lack the directness, the abounds with what are sometimes fire, the pithiness, and the power of called self-made men-men who adaptation, essential in a western have fitted themselves for the speaker-who find their talents un. emergencies into which they are dervalued, their tastes ill suited to thrown.
the state of things around them, and That such men should be more despond under the disappointment. accessible, or be more easily moved The romance of missionary life van. by a ministry, themselves imbued ishes with their first acquaintance in by habit and by education with the their new station. They expected same spirit, and familiar with the to find a people tractable, and reve. traits of character with which they rent, paying great deference to the are to come in contact, is in accord- opinions of one of enlarged mental ance with the plainest principles of cultivation and full of theological common sense.
lore-a people filled with admira. We do not say a word to detracttion of the love that could prompt from the acknowledged usefulness to such self-sacrifice for the single of the hundreds of young men purpose of doing good to men. In. from our eastern seminaries, whose stead of this, they find a community labors are already devoted in season many of whom have become so ac. and out of season, in carrying the customed to self-instruction in other consolations of the Gospel to the matters that they scarcely feel the millions of our countrymen. We necessity of much religious teachdisparage not their efforis when we ing, and who, if they do not "bet. 'say that men imbued with the west ter know the Lord,” are not wantern spirit, trained amid western in- ing in the opinion that they are fuences, and educated in the region "wiser than their teachers are”-a where they are destined to labor, community many of whom feel that will have more adaptation, and with they confer rather than receive a fagreater facility become all things vor, when they employ "a mission. to all men, than those educated ary from the East," and "subscribe" abroad. It is not enough that their three hundred dollars as his annual primary education is obtained at salary. the West. New England might as We would be far from intimating well expect to increase the useful that there are no exceptions to the ness of her future ministry by send. state of things here described. Nor is ing her sons to Europe for their edu. it irremediable where it exists. Men cation, as might the western church- who are thoroughly pre-acquainted es by educating their young men with the elements with which they in the colleges of New England. have to contend, and who have skill
to meet these elements, will find It is otherwise with those who re. them by no means among the mostly for their support on voluntary cong difficult, to be molded and shaped tributions. Those who fill the de.. into the forms that render society partment of instruction in western desirable. The transforming power colleges and theological seminaries, of the Gospel is never more happily and who labor as ministers of the illustrated than it has been in iis in. Gospel, must rely to a considerable fluence upon such communities, in extent on the benefactions of eastmany hundred instances. So far ern churches.
Nor is it enough as we have been able to consult facts that their persons do not grow lean and make observations, men of west- from hunger, or that they are proern habits and education have been tected from the elements without. most successful in accomplishing The character of the men who are to these results.
be converted, and trained for useLet it not here be said that we are fulness on earth and glory in heaven, advancing views antagonistic to the by their instrumentality, and the nastatements made in another part of ture of the service they are to render, this article. We would by no means present the strongest argument for forego the Puritan element in the in an elevated standard of intellectual strumentalities to be employed in culture. The West must have men western evangelization. We only to fill both her chairs of instruction say, let that element be nurtured and and her pulpits, who shall not be developed on the ground where it is satisfied with the amount of intel. to be called into active service. lectual capital with which they enLet it be done in institutions after gaged in the service-men who the New England model, and under shall employ the best hours of life the instruction of men themselves with intense thought in a well fur. deeply imbued with the New Eng. nished study-men who shall be un. land spirit.
trammeled, on the one hand, by the We have, before we close, a word poverty that makes the heart sick ; to say of the pecuniary support or, on the other, by those worldly which is to be furnished to the class cares which furnish the only alter. of thoroughly educated men, who native when a competence is withleave the pleasant homes and re held. If there are men on earth fined society of the eastern states to who deserve a competence, they dedevote their lives to the moral and serve it who enter the wilderness, intellectual culture of the West. and give a life time to the work of Men who go there to gratify their gathering an infant church, and setambition, or their love of wealth, ting in order whatever is wanting to find a field equal to their highest make that church, and the commuhopes. It is rarely true that any nity with which it is associated, wor. class of men, who go to the West thy of our pilgrim ancestry ; worthy relying upon their own resources of the high destiny of the nation of for support, fail to improve their con- which they are a part; worthy of dition in life. In all the departments Him who redeemed them with his of skill and manual labor, industry blood. This competence can not be meets its sure reward.
furnished at the West.
BONDAGE OF THE ELEMENTS.*
As successive generations passed stress upon the figures, by which away, and go down to the grave, the Scriptures represent the enormi. there is a natural tendency in truth ty of the nature, and the magnitude to go along with them, and be buri. of the effects, of sin ; and that, ed out of the sight of those that fol. however it may be in poetry, it is not low. Hence, if a member of a in fact true, that there has been such present generation, beholding the an apostasy as “ brought death into ihreatened loss of any truth, inter the world, and all our woe.” Preachposes and saves it,-or, searchingers, essayists, lecturers, and editors, the tombs of the fathers, finds and numerous, gifted, and popular, have brings up to light again a buried with a zeal worthy of the best cause, treasure of past time, he not only every where taught the people to deserves well of all his contempo- hold, not only as a fancy, but as a raries, but richly merits also that un. perfect horror, the idea that Satan equaled reward which truth itself, should be permitted such success in like virtue, is ever ready to pay. his dark and dreadful plot, as to entail
Somewhat like these were our re disease, pain, and death upon man; flections when rising from the peru- much more, that he should be sufsal of Dr. Hopkins' sermon, founded fered to exult in a whole world deupon those marvelous hints of Paul faced, deformed, or wrecked. And concerning the subjection of the no doubt their teachings have taken “ creature" or “creation” to strong hold. They have succeed. ity,” or the “bondage of corrup- ed in introducing, to a lamentable tion.” Rom. viii, 19-22. Not in. extent, a “ fashion," or
“ form of deed that the leading sentiment of sentimentalism, which leads some to this discourse, viz. the correspond. see only what is beautiful and subence of the phase of terrestrial lime and useful in nature”—which nalure to the moral character of the is admirably rebuked by Dr. H., not human race, had been entirely lost only on the page from which these in the graves of the fathers,-for it quotations are made, but also by the has made a lasting impression upon entire sentiment of the discourse. the mind of many a living reader of And many thanks are due to the Beza, Milton, the elder Edwards, and man, who ventured to stand before others both before and after them: such an audience as was gathered but that to many, it was like a lost in Boston, May 29, 1845, and take truth,—and that to more there was such broad ground concerning the danger of its soon becoming so. To curse of sin ; and who was able help on with its burial, has been the to vindicate so well the views which whole drift of a philosophy which the New England fathers held as has been struggling in modern years, the true meaning of these words of and with far too much encourage. Paul, and to interpose so good an efment, for supremacy. Men have fort as this to save truth from falling been sedulously taught by it, that in the streets, or from being buried past ages put altogether unwarrant- in the grave as a dead man A Sermon preached before the Annu
out of mind.” It was " a word fitly al Convention of the Congregational Min. spoken.” isters of Massachusetts in Boston, May But we must restrain our pen, for 29, 1845.
By Mark Hopkins, D. D., President of Williams College. Boston:
we intend no set eulogy. Neither Press of T. R. Marvin, 24 Congress st.
do we design a criticism. We leave them for others.
We will remark, however, that poreal, there would be a choice for with a selected topic like this, and elements in “repose" above ele. before such an assembly, and es. ments in motion ; whether to unfall. pecially from one who comes as an en angels, standing where we do in accredited prior from the cloisters of nature, the earth would indeed have learning, and in an age where such “the appearance of being a ruin ;" official ones are presumed to have whether the judgment of man's stood on the Pisgah of Science, ex mind on this point is not dependent pectation looked for no ordinary pro- on the medium, i. e. the senses, by duction. Nor did it look in vain. which the mind procures her facts ; The items are very few, if any, of whether, to one both without sin and argument or style, and as few of the “infirmities” of sin, any “ter. philosophy to which adverse crit- ror” would forerun the “beauty,” icism could take exceptions. Nev. as " the rainbow
spans the thunder ertheless, some veterans in exege. cloud;" whether, if the earth“ yields sis, might strongly, if not justly, scantily, and to the hand of labor contend with Dr. H. against the ex. only,” sinless beings would need that tension of the word “ xtlois” be- she should yield more freely ; whethyond the animate to the inanimate er, if the listeners were themselves and senseless creation. Perhaps, different, the “wild shrieks and also, many readers who sympathize howlings of the tempest” might not with the preacher, in the main, will be very music ; in short, whether, withhold their assent from his sug. to use the words of the discourse gestions as to the ultimate causes of itself, “ the relations of man to the the present state of physical corrup- material universe as changed by the tion. No doubt there are men, not fall,” necessarily imply a change of the Unitarian school, who, if both in man and in the universebent on strict philosophical scrutiny, a change in the universe for man, might deny the actual distortion, or as well as in man for the universebending aside of nature, organized or, simply a change in man or or. beings excepted, from a state in it- ganized nature ; and so there be, self absolutely perfect, and which not only seeming, but real evil, in itself might have been no other. in the system of things with which wise bad sin never entered the world.
we are connected. The inquiry can, without doubt, But we make not these inquiries honestly and orthodoxly be made, for ourselves. The two theories, if whether, in order to produce this so they may be called, arrive at the instructive and admonitory corres.
self-same result. Practically, they pondence between the physical and are identical.
are identical. If the earth to man moral face of the earth, it is una. be cursed, that is enough; it is a voidably necessary that the curse matter of no moment to us now, and degradation of sin should reach whether it wears that appearance to further than animation and its senses, angels or not. and produce a state of actual deg. Either of these suppositions, as radation and deformity in the rest of before hinted, would be, and already nature likewise ; whether a degrad. is, set down by many wisdom-boast. ing and primitive change in the in. ing lips, as mere song, savoring of habitants of the world, on the one large credulity, and unworthy the part, is not sufficient to establish this embrace of disencumbered reason. sin-rebuking sympathy, or corres. Nevertheless, either of them may pondence, of 'mind with matter, be true. The world has long since without an absolute degradation of learned, that “to err is human;" the world itself, on the other part; while, if there is any certainty, any whether to beings sinless, though cor: truth, any resting place for the sole Vol. IV.