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the ryot," come faceva la buon anima di mio padre; è cio basta.” (I do, as did my father before me; and that is quite sufficient).
The staples of Cawnpore are cotton, indigo, grain, sugar, sugar-cane, and opium. The cultivation of the two first hag much fallen off in late years. The depression of the indigo cultivation, dated from the failure of the great houses in 1820 and of the agencies in 1830. Mr. Montgomery attributes the diminution in the cotton cultivation to the low prices which have prevailed of late years, and to the limited deinand for the article in the European market. In 1839, the Court of Directors, being desirous of attempting a more effectual experiment than had yet been essayed, deputed Captain Bayles to Annerica, with a view to obtaining information, seeds, and machinery, for the growing and cleaning of cotton. Captain Bayles returned in due course of time, with seeds, apparatus, and ten experienced planters, willing to proceed to India.* Two of these American planters were stationed, in 1841, at Cawnpore. The villages selected were on the banks of the Jumna, declared by a competent authority to be a most favourable locality.f After three years, the experiment was abandoned. Various causes have been assigned for the failure, such as, the unpropitiousness of the season, the short duration of the enterprize, and the dullness of the natives. We believe that the fault lay with the planters themselves, who had not the spirit to persevere. As to the unteachableness of the people, we cannot help fancying, that the teachers did not thoroughly do their duty. « The Hindu cultivator," says an eminent authority, I “must be taught by example, rather than by precept: and those, who teach, must endeavour to fortify their precepts, as well as their practice, by taking care that both are conformable to principle." The same writer has, in many passages, enforced the necessity of experimentalists adapting their principles and practice to diversity of soil and climate, and to the influence of physical agents on vegetation. These axioms were probably disregarded in the present instance. The site was a good one, and the district is favourable to such purposes. Mr. Montgomery considers that the cotton cultivation might easily be doubled. In the district of Cawnpore, generally, there prevail alternations of husbandry and rotation of crops. Most lands give two fields of different kinds in the year. Good wheat lands yield twenty maunds (equivalent to 1,646 lbs.) per acre, and fetch about five rupees per bigah, or 20s. per
* Royle.Productive Resources, p. 321. + Ibid. p. 331.
acre, as rent; barley and indigo lands, about 16s. The rich alluvial lands, growing vegetables combined with other crops, (market gardens in fact), rent sometimes as high as twelve rupees per biyah, or £4 16s. per acre. The cattle are fed on chaff or stalks. Jungle pasturage is scarce,* and artificial herbage is almost unknown. The plough is a wretched instrument, and has nothing but hoary antiquity to recommend it. Its inefficiency is shown by the fact, that wheat and sugar-cane lands have to be plonghed from ten to fifteen times, barley land from seven to twelve times, and so on.
Success, very different from that of the cotton experiment, attended the cultivation of the poppy. This was commenced in 1836. The first two or three seasons were signal failures ; but the experiment was resuscitated by the efforts of Mr. E. A. Reade, then deputy collector. Shortly afterwards, a subordinate opium agency was established at Cawnpore. For several years the prosperity of the season mainly depended on the personal exertions of the superintendant. After that, the ryots found out that the cultivation of the poppy was a profitable investment for their labour and capital ; and about 1,800 acres
under cultivation. The average produce per bigah has been raised from 1 seer 12 chuttacks in 1833, to 6 seers 6 chuttacks in 1847. The examiner at Benares, and the agent at Ghazipur, have repeatedly testified to the superior quality of the Cawnpore opium.
We must here conclude our selections from the long category of subjects discussed in the Statistical Report. At the same time, we cannot but feel that imperfect justice has been done to the care and ability, with which the Report has evidently been compiled. It would be no easy task to produce a work of this stamp in a country, where the preparation of statistics formed a regular branch of the executive administration, where countless official returns were to be found, and where a class of men existed, who had been trained up to such employment. But who shall estimate the labour of such a work in a country, where statistical science is as yet in its infancy; where information has to be extracted, gathered, and, as it were, reaped, winnowed and sifted with the most searching scrutiny; where agents and coadjutors have to be drilled, watched, and trained with the most laborious patience ? Among the tables, included in the body of the publication in question, some would, we presume, have been obtained from official records; others would have been prepared by the Sudder and Mofussil (station and district) officers; and others, by consultation and conference with the most experienced and intelligent native residents. The first set do not need comment, as they could be obtained with comparative ease. To the second kind, namely, those prepared by the Government officials, would belong the registry of traffic, the returns of district produce, the statement of tenures, of mutations of property, of average holdings, of caste divisions, and of the eighteen maps embodied in the Report. A most cursory inspection of any one of these statements would convince any one of the labour, which all of them, collectively and individually, must have cost. And all this was accomplished in addition to the current duties of a large district. “Nil mortalibus arduum.” Who would believe, till they actually see it, the amount of work, which may be got through with resolution and perseverance ? To the third class, namely, those prepared with the assistance of private individuals, would belong the statement of average prices of imports and exports, and of the expences attending cultivation. These too must have involved very great toil. The influence of such a publication will be widely extended. It is a start in the right direction; it facilitates future investigations by affording a model for them; it helps in rearing up a class of native officers fitted for statistical research. This work is the first of its kind; that many similar ones may follow it, is to be hoped ; that many will surpass it, may be doubted.
* Seo Dr. Royle's Remarks on the pasture Grasses of India, ib. pp. 155-101.
Such, at the end of fifty years under the English sway, is the first chapter in the history of Cawnpore. What will the next be? If a second Statistical Report should be written fifty years hence, what will there be to record ? Undiscernible as the coming time must always be, yet certain objects do seem to loom forth from the mist and haze of the future. We have visions of the rail passing throughi Cawnpore, of the Ganges canal fertilizing the district, of inland navigation, of re-distribution of the taxes, of scientific agriculture, of the introduction of new staples and new produce, of the diffusion of European professional knowledge on practical subjects, of improved transit, of an invigorated administration in all departments, and of an extended national education.
But whether these speculations be groundless and air-built, or not, at all events it may be affirmed, that, if as much ground is gained during the next half century as there has been during the last, some progress will have indeed been made towards the attainment of (what must ever be the object of the British rule) the prosperity, happiness, and morality of the people.
ART. IV.-1. The Government Gazette. 1849.--Proposed Jury
Act. 2. The Englishman and Military Chronicle. 1849. 3. The Bengal Hurkaru. 1849. 4. The Friend of India. 1849.
The Black Acts, it has been said, though suspended for the present, are likely some day to pass. When a code has been revised and adopted as law, and the way thus cleared for their enactment-when their deficiencies have been supplied, and the cases, not foreseen in drawing them up, have been provided form they are likely to become, in a shape perhaps somewhat different from their original one, the law of the land. In what form the Jury Act will re-appear-whether rendering imperative, or optional to the prisoner, the presence of a Jury-or imperative for the trial of a British prisoner, and optional for that of a native-whether confined to the higher courts, or prescribed also for the lower--what amount in short of the Jury principle will be introduced into the judicial system as it now stands, is uncertain : and, while it is uncertain, it is not too late to consider what it is that is implied in the use of the trial by Jury, and to view it, not solely as a part of the machinery employed for arriving at a correct judgment, but in all its bearings. For other bearings it undoubtedly has, whether they are considered as effects of the institution, or collateral circumstances inseparable from its existence.
The introduction of trial by Jury into a judicial system has consequences analogous to the introduction of a chemical substance into a collection of other substances, each of whose composition it modifies. On comparing the system of decision by a single Judge, with that where the fact is submitted to the final decision of & Jury--in other words, the plan in use here, and the English method-it will be found that each of the parties concerned, the Judge, the Police, the witnesses, the criminal, and the public, is subjected to influences in the latter case, which have no existence in the former. We shall briefly indicate some of the ways in which it affects each of these parties.
The Judge, sitting alone, may, with all his skill in the law, be affected in some cases by an undue bias, and, to use the words of Mr. Cameron's Minute, “there is danger of his falling into a
basty and slovenly mode of transacting business, which has
become to him matter of mere routine, and of his becoming irritable and impatient of contradiction."
These faults, whatever tendency the free admission of the public will have to repress them, will be further diminished by the presence of a Jury, more especially in the case of the native Judge. But there is the additional circumstance, that the Judge, not being entrusted with the decision of the fact, is still more in the position of an impartial looker-on, whose special duty it is to see fair play, and to make an unbiassed explanation of the points of evidence in his summing-up-of a looker-on, moreover, whose opinion is of such weight, as usually to be adopted by the Jury. It may be added, that any pretence of charging Judges with a want of independence is neutralized by the verdict of à Jury.
Whatever opinion the public generally entertains of the Police, that opinion will be shared by the average of Juries. Whether it confines itself generally to the line of its duties, or is guilty of such departures from it, as have been frequently alleged against the Mofussil Police, will be known to the Jury in common with the rest of their countrymen:and, knowing these things, and being in their turn subject to their evil practices, if any such exist, they are peculiarly competent to form a judgment in cases where these have occurred. Placed daily in the seat of judgment, not as permanent members, but as the continually varying por. tions of a large and respectable class, it is impossible, but that, by the course of judicial decisions and of public opinion originating from them, they should affect the conduct of the Police, and tend to bring that body to assume its proper place.
Witnesses will be influenced in a manner analogous to this, though not exactly resembling i--more especially the man who has come prepared to give false evidence. He will scarcely venture to do this, to the extent to which it is now practised, before men, who may be members of the very society in which the events, of which he testifies, take place. This at least is the most simple and obvious explanation of a fact which is undoubtedly true, that there is a greater amount and more glaring instances of false evidence in British Judicial Courts than in the Native States and in those territories which have been recently subjected to our rule. These fruits of our system may probably have been caused in some degree by the existence of a fixed law and an established rule of procedure, which, so far as the criminal is concerned, are set up only to be evaded: but they have probably ripened into their present vigorous maturity under the fostering influence of Judges, before whom witnesses could relate their grosser inventions without fear of instant rejection.