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better. I feel, as in the days of my youth, that 'hunger and thirst after righteousness,' which long habits of infirmity, and the low concerns of the world, have contributed to extinguish.”
This passage calls to our mind the beautiful lines of the great Goethe:
*. Was sucht ihr mächtig und gelind,
Ilir Himmelstöne, mich im Staube?
Die Thrāne quillt ; die Erde hat mich wieder !"
Yes; even in India ! *
We owe a word of thanks to the editor of these volumes for the highly creditable manner in which he has acquitted himself. He writes comparatively little himself; though what he does write is both clever and very useful in connecting the parts of the story. He shows, with much real affection towards his father, an amount of discretion which is as sensible, as it is considerate and rare
We trust that our brief notice will direct the attention of many of our readers to this excellent work.
• The Indian career of Sir James Mackintosh will add nothing to his high and well won fame. The “lions" of the literary world find no resting pluce here. The Mackintoshes and Macaulays look down upon us, as well they may; and we admire them very muclı, but are quite willing that they should stay at home. There seems to be something in wholesomely exciting in the atmosphere of the higher intellectual circles of London, which unfits the mind for ordinary society, anal for earnest practical work. We want men here, who think it nobler and more truly great to labour for the welfare of a hundred in illions of Hindus, than to shine in the clubs, or oven to write works of real genins, like the Vindicice Gallicæ, the Ilistory of Lnylund, or the Luys of Ancient Rome.-D.
ART. VIII.-1. History of the Rise and Progress of the Bengal
Army, by Captain Arthur Broome. Vol. I. Calcutta. W.
Thacker and Co. 1850. 2. History of British India, by James Mill. 3. A Voyage to the East Indies, by Mr. Grose. 4. A History of the Military Transactions of the British Na
tion in Indostan, by Robert Orme, Esq., F. A. S. 5. The Life of Robert Lord Clive, Baron of Plassy, by Mr.
Caraccioli. 6. Life of Lord Clive, by Major General Sir John Malcolm. 7. Macaulay's Critical and Historical Essays. 8. Reports of the Select Committee of the House of Commons. 9. The Seir Mutakherin. 10. Ives's Voyage and Historical Narrative.
THERE is perhaps no task so difficult as that of having to blend together, and form into a connected narrative, a series of petty military actions, which, although highly important as a train of events all bearing upon one object, yet are in themselves apparently trivial and unimportant. The early history of our military exploits in India, as detailed in the pages of Orme, is a striking instance of the difficulty we allude to: and the History of the Rise and Progress of the Bengal Army, by Captain Broome, is only relieved from it by the skill with which the author has contrived to bring prominently forward such details, as are interesting even at the present day. The first volume of this history extends from the earliest period of our connection with India to the close of Lord Clive's second adıninistration. It does little more than trace the progress of this now mighty kingdom from its infancy to the time when it first exhibited signs of its future power. It shows how our success in war has been generally owing to the triumph of discipline, skill, and energy, over the untrained and misdirected efforts of a brave, but inexperienced and unskilful, foe. It gives us many highly interesting details, which cannot be found in any other volume, but have been collected and condensed with a skill, patience, and perseverance, that are entitled to lasting praise. The military student of our early wars will here find best and most connected narrative, that we have yet seen, of those transactions; and he will also find the authority for each fact or statement given with scrupulous fidelity.
Most of the works, to which Captain Broome has referred, are not procurable in Mofussil Stations in India ; and even the best formed libraries are deficient in many of them. We have now before us an array of not less than fifty volumes, which we have collected for the purpose of reference; yet we have been unable to procure many works, to which we wished to refer in our examination of this work. Much of Captain Broome's information has been derived from the India House ; and much labour and expence have been incurred by him in causing references to be made to the manuscripts existing there : indeed, we are convinced, that no pains have been spared to render the book substantially correct. We could have wished that a more copious detail at the head of each chapter had been added, to aid in our notice of the book; and a simple reprint of the running title at the head of each page, if prefaced to each chapter, would have added much to the value of the work.
The first chapter closes with the oft-told tale of the fatal night of the Black Hole; and the second as appropriately concludes with the narrative of the early death of the sanguinary tyrant, who caused that massacre. It is only in Eastern climes, where vice and profligacy are as rapid in their growth and as gigantic in their evil consequences, as the rank vegetation in the jungles around, that a monster, like this, could have been so precociously matured in evil, as to perish with such universal execration at the early age of twenty years, after a reign of only fifteen months.
We pass over the few unimportant military records of the first chapter, observing merely that the charges on that head for the five years preceding the capture of Calcutta by Suraj-ud-dowlah scarcely averaged £20,000 a year! It was by sea, and not by land, that the Company, trading to the East Indies, first prominently signalized themselves, by fitting out (what was for those days large and expensive fleets: and had they been as successful in securing good naval, as they afterwards were in securing military, commanders, their power might have been more early and successfully developed.
An ensign and thirty men were sanctioned in 1652 in Bengal, to do honour to the principal agents there : and this small party was the nucleus of the present army at this Presidency. In 1653, this force had only increased to 250 men ; although at that time a ship of war, mounting seventy-two guns, was employed in the Bay of Bengal to act against interlopers, who appeared to be the enemies then most dreaded by the Company. Aurungzebe, in 1685, was in the zenith of his power : and yet, so conscious were the Company of their strength, even at that early period, that they did not hesitate to commence hostilities against him, and to appeal to arms, when the Nawab of Dacca tried to impose, in Bengal, a duty of three anda half per cent., which was customarily levied at Surat, but had hitherto not been imposed in Bengal. On this occasion, a fleet of no less than ten ships, of from seventy to twelve guns each, was fitted out in England, and the command given to Captain Nicholson, with the rank of Admiral. The orders were, that the Company's ships then in the Bay of Bengal should join this fleet, which would increase its numbers by nine vessels : and Chittagong was fixed upon as the place of debarkation and attack. Two hundred pieces of cannon were sent out to be placed on the works, which were ordered to be erected there:
As soon as Chittagong should be captured, and put in a state of proper defence, the troops and the smaller vessels were to proceed against Dacca, which, it was contemplated, would offer but little resistance; and, when masters of his capital, terms were to be offered to the Nawab on the following conditions : " That he should cede the city and territory of Chittagong to the Company, and pay the debts due by him ; that he should allow
that he should allow rupees coineil at Chittagong to pass current in the Province, and restore all privileges according to the ancient Phirmuunds-ench party to bear their respective losses and expenses in the war. On these conditions alone, the Company would agree to re-settle the factories in Bengal."-P. 13.
Unforeseen and disastrous circumstances frustrated these plans of conquest. Contrary winds and bad weather detained or destroyed portions of the fleet; and, instead of going to Chittagong, the remnant of the fleet, when it arrived at the mouth of the Hugly, in October 1686, was ordered up to the English factory, which had been built at Hugly. Four hundred European troops had been that year brought round from Madras to that place ; and the Nawab Shaistah Khan, alarmed by all these demonstrations, assembled a considerable force, both of horse and foot, in the immediate neighbourhood. A bazar row, which took place between some of his men and some of the English soldiers, ended in a regular fight, in which the English killed sixty of the enemy, wounded many more, spiked eleven guns, and, with the assistance of Admiral Nichols son's fleet, burnt or destroyed upwards of 500 houses in the town of Hugly. No pillage was allowed by Mr. Charnock, for which lenient conduct he was reprimanded by the Court, who remarked that such a measure 66 would have convinced the natives of our power !” The claims of the Company upon the Nawab then amounted to sixty-six laks. One item was " for protecting Haggerston from justice, 45,000 rupees”-which
was an easy way of recovering " the debts remaining and owing us in the country.” Admiral Nicholson appears to have undertaken nothing of importance, except the bombardment of Hugly; and the proceedings of Mr. Charnock and his council were characterized by so much irresolution, that the Court sent out Captain Heath with two more vessels, one of which mounted sixty-four guns, to re-inforce the expedition, and carry out their original intentions. This officer might well have been called “hasty Heath” and was said to be “ of a variable disposition, not far removed from craziness.” rived off the village of Chutanutti in October 1688, resolved to commence hostilities immediately, and, for this purpose, ordered all the Company's servants to ernbark on board the fleet, which sailed for Balasore on the 8th November. Having captured and pillaged that place, he next proceeded to Chittagong; but, finding the works there stronger than he expected, he proceeded to Arracan, and proposed to the King to co-operate with him against the Mogul. On the rejection of these proposals, he tried, in order to obtain a settlement, to enter into a negotiation with a chief of some consequence, who had revolted against the King: but, being too hasty and impatient to wait even for an answer to his proposals, he sailed with the whole fleet to Madras—thus abandoning the trade in Bengal, and leaving the property there to be confiscated by the Emperor, who was now much incensed against the English.
About eighteen months after the failure of this mad expedition, Mr. Charnock, the founder of our capital, received permission to renew the trade in Bengal, and landed at Chutanutti in August 1690, with a guard of one officer and thirty men, the original military establishment, which power was increased to 100 men by the close of the year. The disputes between the old and the new East India Companies do not seem to have retarded the progress of the settlement in Calcutta ; and their junction considerably increased the power of the British nation there. In the year 1707-8, the rival Companies were united, and in the same year, the Emperor Aurungzebe died. With him fell the power of the Mogul monarchy, which speedily passed into the hands of the United Company, which had just been formed. The coincidence was remarkable ; but half a century elapsed ere they were able to avail themselves of the rapid decay of the Muhammadan power, which ensued on the death of Aurungzebe. During great part of this period, the Governors in Bengal were friendly to the English. But at length, in 1756, Suraj-ud-dowlah succeeded to the Government; and he, by his vices, bis