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has been very much lowered by our acquaintance with them. And then, last of all, it is scarcely possible for any snake, that we have ever seen, to bite a person in a European garb. All these circumstances combine to render a venomous snake bite an exceedingly rare occurrence amongst Europeans. We believe many medical men have been in extensive practice for very many years, without having had an opportunity of treating a single case. In so far therefore as any personal danger is concerned, the likelihood of being bitten is so small, that even the strictest prudence scarcely requires us to adopt any precaution, or to provide ourselves in anticipation with any remedy. But those who reside in the Mofussil may sometimes be called on to afford aid to natives, whose costume renders them so much more liable to be bitten; and at all events the subject is one of great interest. From all that we have read of the subject, we have come to the conclusion that the wisest course, when any one has been certainly bitten by a cobra or other deadly serpent, is immediately to apply the actual cautery, after binding the limb with a cord above the bite as tight as possible, so as to stop the circulation as nearly as possible, and prevent the poison-impregnated blood from reaching the vital organs. As soon as a red-hot iron can be got ready, it should be unshrinkingly applied to the wound, nor removed until the flesh is completely scorched. After this the patient should be kept awake by stimulants, and by being compelled to keep moving about. Our authors bring to notice the virtues of what is called the "Tanjore pill," the ingredients of which are white arsenic and quicksilver and four vegetable substances. The efficacy of this pill is vouched for by the venerable Swartz; and it is very much to be regretted that the vegetable ingredients are not ascertained with perfect certainty. We confess however that we have always considerable doubts as to the efficacy of any such remedies, however attested. In so many cases are wounds supposed to be caused by the bites of cobras and other deadly snakes, which are either caused by the bites of comparatively harmless snakes, or even by the mere pricking of thorny shrubs; and, so proper is it in case of doubt to err on the side of safety—that we are persuaded that many specifics acquire reputation by curing imaginary cases, where no cure at all was required, or slight causes which yield to remedies that would not reach the real evil. It was thus, we doubt not, that the root of the Aristolochia Indica acquired å temporary reputation a few years ago; which was blasted, so far as we recollect, by a series of experiments conducted

by Mr Meade at Madras. A priori we should scarcely expect, that a medicine taken into the stomach is the best antidote to a poison of such speedy action imbibed through the absor

We should rather expect that the best way to grapple with the evil was either to send a neutralizing substance after it, or else, by the vigorous method we have alluded to, to destroy the absorbent organs altogether, or thoroughly incapacitate them for conveying the poison into the system.

The next section of the work bears the somewhat curious heading, “ DOMESTIC Pests." We shall not tell our readers what these are. If ignorance be possible, it will certainly be bliss.

We next come to a dissertation on the “ Natives of India, their character, customs and prejudices." On such a subject nothing has produced more confusion and contradiction than undue generalization; and this, it is due to our authors to say, that they strive to avoid. In fact it were almost as possible to describe in a chapter the natives of Europe as the natives of India. What is true of one class is utterly inapplicable to a dozen of others; and what is the most distinguishing characteristic of many individuals in any one great class, may be wanting altogether, or existing in very limited degree, in many other individuals of the same class. It is therefore manifest that all general descriptions must be very vague, like those which occur in books of geography " for the use of schools,” which seem to suppose that they have told us all that can be told about the characteristics of the several nations, when they have stated that the Englishman is hospitable, the Scotsman industrious, and the Irishman light-hearted. It is not by such generalities, however, that we can learn aught that is worth learning respecting a people. The only things that are of any use in this respect are facts, numerous facts, from which we may derive our own conclusions. But however much the various nations that inhabit this great continent, rather than country, may differ from each other, we cannot go any where amongst them without seeing that they are all largely tainted with evil practices which nothing but the diffusion of Christianity amongst them can root out, and sadly defective in certain qualities, that nothing but Christianity will ever impart. This is a serious subject--some may think too serious to be introduced alongside of the melange that we have gathered together into this article; but we must express our decided conviction that the character of the people of this country, however it may be

modified as it is developed in different classes and different individuals, is a character radically and essentially evil; that no influence that can be brought to bear upon it is adequate to the production of a radical and essential improvement, excepting those influences that are exbibited in the Bible, and that are exerted, in greater or less measure, wheresoever Christianity is diffused amongst a people in any considerable degree of purity. This is our deliberate.conviction, which all that we see going on around us in this age of progress tends amply to confirm. Without the influences that we have spoken of, all the other means that naturally tend to elevate the condition and improve the character of a people, are deprived of nine-tenths of their legitimate influence. Take as an example the mightiest and most powerful of all human agencies—the press. What is the effect of the indigenous literature that issues from the native press in Bengal ? Let our readers turn again to the account of it contained in our last issue,* and let them take into consideration that not a tithe of the evil of the staple literature of the country is exhibited there, or can ever be exhibited in our pages ; and we are persuaded that they will come, as we have long ago come, to the conclusion, that all external improvements must fall infinitely short of the end of elevating the people of India to that point in the scale of character, which their well-wishers desire that they should attain. It is the same with commerce, improved modes of communication and transit, mental culture, and every thing else. All these are good and valuable in their own place, as subordinate to Christianity; but, apart from it, the benefit they can confer is very doubtful, and at the best extremely partial.

The ties of nature do but feebly bind,
And commerce partially reclaims mankind ;
Philosophy, without his heavenly guide,
May blow up self-conceit, and nourish pride ;
But, while his province is the reasoning part,
Has still a veil of midnight on his heart.
'Tis truth divine, exhibited on earth,

Gives charity her being and her birth. It is this charity, and nothing short of it, that will really elevate our native fellow-subjects; will introduce among them a new set of ideas; will so modify their social and domestic habits, without unduly interfering with their nationality, as greatly to alter the detail of the intercourse between them and Europeans ; will introduce amongst them the hitherto unknown idea

. Cal. Rev. No. XXVI. Art. 2.

of home, break down the system of caste, and “humanize" tens of thousands of those who may not be actually converted.

The second part, occupying about half the volume, consists of what is styled a vocabularic index. This is simply an English and Hindustani dictionary, with references througbout to such places of the former part of the work as treat of the subject to which any word refers. This strikes us as likely to prove very useful to the student, providing him as it does at once with a dictionary, and an index to the very varied contents of the former part of the band-book. It is also interspersed with occasional dissertations, as they may almost be called, on many subjects of interest, which contain a truly surprising amount of information in a very small compass. Take, as a specimen, the following account of the Hookah :Hookah cor. of Hook'ku; the better description of which consists of the

following named distinct portions, viz. 1. Hook'ku, the glass, metal, or earthen-ware water-vessel. 2. Kur'ee'na or Ni'ga'lee, f. the double-pipe which fixes into the water vessel. 3. Gut'ta, the socket of the kur'ee'na. 4. Ny'chu, the Snake, or Pipe which unites with the shorter pipe of the kureena. 5. Moonh'nal, the metal or mineral Mouth-piece. 6. Ur’uk-dan or Chil'-um-chee, f. the metal Saucer which connects the longer pipe of the kureena with the chilum. 7. Chil'um, the metal or earthen-ware Cup or Bowl in which the tobacco, tu'wa, and fireballs are contained. 8. Gita or Git’ikh, the small earthen-ware tripod plate fixed between the concavity of the chilum and the tobacco. 9. Tu'wa, the metal or earthen-ware circular plate interposed between the tobacco below and the fire-balls above. (Tum'a'koo, the Tobacco.-v. note, p. 442.-Gool, the charcoal fire-balls.) 10. Sur’posh or Chum'bur, the metal Chil'um-cover. 11. Ghil af, the Ny'chu slip or cover. 12. Zer'uu'daz, the hookku

Carpet. Hook’ku, varieties of the.-Dum'ee, f. Fur'shee, f. Kool'koo'la,-(a small

kind), Goor'goo'ree, f.-(used by a class of Fukeers), My'dan'ee,(made of cocoanut), Nar'i'yul" or Nari'yul'ee,(-of earthen-ware), Thur'i'ya. Hookku attendant, Hook'kubur'dar, 63. Hookku pipe, straight-Chou'ga'nee, f.bent (as of the goorgooree), Do.

Hookku-snake, Ny'chu.
Hookhu-snake maker, Ny'chubund.
Hookku-snake making, Ñy'chu-bundee.

We have often thought that a great deal of correct deduction might be derived from the contemplation of the cumbrous paraphernalia of the hooka in reference to the character of the people. Compare it with the Irishman's " dooden," or even John Bull's "yard of clay,” and you will see the difference between the race that makes a business of pleasure, or makes the chief enjoyment of life consist in the dolce far niente, and the race that habitually prefers duty to enjoyment.

The notices of plants and trees are valuable, although we see several indications that the author is neither a botanist nor a practical cultivator. The notices of the coinage, under the articles mohur, pagoda, pice, pie, and rupee, strike us as particularly good, containing a vast deal of really useful information in a wonderfully concentrated form. It would be of no use to extract one of these notices apart from the others, as they are all closely connected with each other; and to extract them all would encroach to far too great an extent on our space.

We shall therefore select another extract, almost at random, and with this we shall bring our somewhat desultory article to a close :Thug, (hin.) generally-a robber, assassin, cut-throat ; cheat, impostor :

especially one of a gang of hereditary, professional assassins, Hindoos and Moosulmans, who range the high roads and rivers of various parts of India, and, under the guise of friendship, win the confidence of unsuspecting travellers, and, after accompanying them for a stage or two, on reaching the first selected retired spot (in Thug slang, Bel or Beyl-the place chosen for burying their victims) or, if on the river, the first safe locality, murder them by strangulation, and plunder their property. In different parts of India these ruffians assume, and are designated by various names, derived either from the mode by which they despatch their victims, from the purpose for which they destroy life, or from the arts by which they inveigle their prey to destruction. In the more northern arts of India they are called Thug, the name by which they are most generally known among Europeans. In some provinces to the southward, they have obtained the name of Phan'see'gars or Stranglers, from the Sanscrit Phan'see, f. a noose,

loop, halter, strangulation ; and in the Tamul language, (according to Dr. Sherwood,) "they are called Ari tulucar, or Mussulman noosers; in Canarese, Tanti Calleru, implying thieves, who use a wire or cat-gut noose ; and in Telugu, Warın wabndłu, or Warlu vayshay wahndloo, meaning People who use the noose.—Thus for the common interpretation of the word THUG : but after the crime of murder by Thugs had, for some time, engaged the attention of the E. I. Government, and stringent laws been enacted for its punishment, doubts and difficulties arose, as to the meaning of the words “ Thug” and “Thuggee,” and the expression “Murder by Thug. gee,” when used in the Acts of the Council of India : for the removal of such doubts, therefore, the legislative branch of the Government provided a legal remedy by the Act No. III. of 1848-passed by the G. G. in Council on the 26th Feb. 1848, which declares and enacts—" that the word • Thug,' wben used in any Act heretofore passed by the Council of India, shall be taken to have meant and to mean a person who is, or has at any time been, habitually associated with any other or others for the purpose of committing, by means intended by such person, or known by such person to be likely, to cause the death of any person, the offence of Child-stealing, or the offence of Robbery not amounting to Dacoity. And that the word “Thuggee,' when used in such Acts, shall be taken to have meant and to mean the offence of committing or attempting any such Child-stealing or Robbery by a Thug. And that the expression • Murder by Thuggee,' when used in such Acts, shall be taken to have

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