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amongst the disaffected sepoys. Each European private received forty rupees, but each private sepoy received only six ; and this was the cause of two battalions breaking out into open mutiny when the proportions were known :
Clamour and discussion immediately arose in the lines ; and, profiting by the example so recently afforded them by the Europeans, they resolved to endeavor to right themselves, and appeal rather to the fears than to the liberality of the Government. Accordingly, on the 13th of February, at 9'clock in the forenoon, in imitation of the Europeans, they assembled under arms on their several parades.
Captain Jennings, immediately that he heard of this, ordered the Euro. pean battalion and the artillery to get under arms also, with a view of protecting the magazine and park, and further of preventing any communication betwixt the Europeans and the sipahis. The last precaution, however, was altogether unnecessary, for the Europeans were most anxi. ous to show their sense of, and to atone for, their past misconduct; and the only difficulty was to restrain their violence, and prevent their falling upon the sipahis for presuming to follow the example they themselves had afforded. The European battalion was in the centre of the line, with the magazine and park in their rear, and the sipahi battalions were drawn up, two on either flank. Captain Jennings ordered the Europeans to load their arms, and also prepared two field-pieces for action ; but gave positive orders that no violence should be used, unless an attack was made. In this state, both parties remained for some time, watching each other, when suddenly Captain MacLean's battalion (the present and Grenadiers), which was on the extreme left, setting up a shout, rushed down in an irregular body towards the Europeans, who had been drawn up in separate companies across the parade, with the park on their left, and two 6-poun. ders on their right. Captain Jennings, anticipating an attack, at first gave orders to oppose the advance of the sipahis ; but, observing that they were moving without order and with shouldered arms, having apparently no hostile intention, he directed that they should be permitted to pass through the intervals of the battalion, if they would do so quietly. This was a nervous moment. The noisy and tumultuous advance of the sipahis left it somewhat uncertain whether they intended mischief or not; and to admit them in the midst of the ranks, was a dangerous experiment; whilst on the other hand, the discharge of a single musket would have been the signal for a general and fearful struggle, which must have ended either in the extermination of the Europeans, or the total dissolution of the native portion of the army, on which the Government were of necessity so deeply dependent. Several officers urged Captain Jennings to resistance ; but he was firm, and repeated his order to let the sipahis pass unmolested. Still, the fact of contrary orders having been issued just before, and the feeling of the European troops at the moment, rendered him apprehensive that some violence or collision might occur. He rode along the ranks, exhorting the men to be steady and quiet, pointing out that the sipahis evidently only wished to pass through the intervals to the other flank ; and he arrived at the right of the line just in time to snatch the match out of the hand of a subaltern of artillery, as he was putting it to a 6-pounder loaded with grape. The result justified his decision. The sipahis passed quietly through and proceeded to the other flank, where, on the extreme right, were posted their friends and comrades, the 2nd Burdwan battalion (now the 8th N. I.), under Captain Smith, when the two corps went off together to the Karumnassa.-Pp. 420-421.
We have given this long extract from Captain Broome's interesting narrative, as it so well describes a most important crisis, wbich was happily terminated, and the two mutinous battalions restored to a sense of their duty, by Captain Jennings’s exertions. He also altered the proportions, and granted the not unreasonable demand of the native troops, that their share of the donation should be made equal to half that of the corresponding ranks of the European battalion.
The army now came under the command of Major Carnac. We pass over all the details of his inglorious campaign against the combined forces of Mir Cossim, the Emperor, and the Nawab of Oude-merely observing that his Fabian policy neither suited the temper of the times, nor that of the men, who burned with impatience to signalize themselves, and thus wipe out the record of their late crimes.
Had a more noble leader succeeded at once to the command of the troops, the painful scenes, which subsequently occurred under the stern, but impartial, Munro, might possibly have been avoided : and thus we cannot but think that Major Carnac, in addition to the disgrace which he afterwards brought on our army at Worgaum, has also partly to bear the blame of the mutiny which occurred at Manji.
Major Munro, on assuming the command in the middle of August, issued a code of minute and well-digested orders for the use of the army, and called the attention of all officers to the proper observance of their duty: he also saw to the enforcement of his orders, and, by a firm, and yet conciliating, course of conduct, gradually brought the army into order. We may judge of the state into which it had been permitted to fall, through the lax discipline of his predecessor, by the serious mutiny which arose amongst the sepoys, showing the urgent want of a strict and firm hand over them. The details of this mutiny at Manji are exceedingly graphic. The spirited manner in which Major Munro quelled it--how he brought the ring-leaders to a Drum-head Court Martial,--how, when the orders were given to blow those sentenced to death from the guns, the grenadiers claimed the privilege of suffering first, as they had always been the foremost in the post of danger or of honourand how those gallant, but misguided men were permitted so to suffer-are all clearly detailed by Captain Broome, to whose work we must refer our readers for a picture of this most touching and harrowing scene, which caused a thrill of horror to run through all ranks, as the fragments of the bodies of their comrades fell scattered beside them on the plain.
This fearful spectacle raised murmurs amongst the troops ; but Major Munro, as intrepid and determined in action, as he was humane and considerate in feeling, notwithstanding the threatened opposition of the sepoys to the execution of the rest of the sentence, proceeded quietly with his duty. The guns of the European battalion and marines were loaded with grape, and, under penalty of instant destruction, the sepoys were required to ground their arms, until sixteen more of their comrades had in like manner suffered: which they did with firm and unmoved countenances. In a similar manner four men were executed at Moneah, and six at Bankypore; and we are almost at a loss which to admire most, the unflinching courage of him who executed, or of those who so suffered. That of both was admirable in its way; but the one was that of misguided and ignorant men, who were but too faithful to their fancied point of honour; the other that of a humane, but heroic and determined leader, resolute in the path of duty. Such men, under such a leader, might well be led to triumph at Buxar.
Major Munro was the Napier of those times. • Like him, he also considered that a light and well equipped force, confident in its discipline, and capable of rapid movement, was far preferable to a larger numerical army, whose movements were liable to be cramped by the necessity for a large establishment of baggage, stores and cattle, and whose efficiency in all respects could not be relied on." With such a force Major Munro quickly restored the prestige of victory to our army ; took Rhotas; and, whilst the Nawab Vizir, who had learnt from the conduct of Major Carnac to undervalue the English, was indulging in luxury in his camp at Buxar, he rapidly advanced. By a skilful manoeuvre, he crossed his force over the Soane on the 11th of October, and after a sharp skirmish of cavalry on the 13th, the main body of the enemy were encountered on the 24th, on the plains of Buxar. In this action, we had 857 Europeans, 5,297 sepoys, and 918 Mogul horse engaged, making a total force of 7,072; of this force only seventy-one were artillery-men, although the number of guns on the field was twenty-eight. The combined force of the enemy ten times out-numbered that of the English. Amongst them, instead of treacherous allies, were the disciplined battalions of Sumroo and Madoc, with fieldpieces worked by Europeans, the powerful batteries of the Nawab Vizir's artillery, and the splendid Dúraní Horse. But combined forces invariably act together with difficulty; and the English, after a hard-fought action, conquered. Our loss in this battle was 101 Europeans and 847 natives, killed
and wounded; and when we compare this loss with that in the action at Plassey, where we had 1,100 European infantry and artillery in the field, and had only seven killed and thirteen wounded, it will be at once evident which was the more hardfought and important action of the two. Yet a halo of fame encircles the field of Plassey, to which in no military sense is it entitled ; and its victor has been lauded by numbers, who have scarcely ever heard of the far more desperate and glorious encounter at Buxar.
Previous to this action, Mir Cossim, whose treasures were exbausted, had been dismissed from the camp with ignominy, mounted on a tame elephant, on which he fled, to the westward, where, a few years after, he ended his days in extreme poverty and misery
The battle of Buxar decided the fate of the campaign. A large booty fell into the hands of our troops, and four lakhs were received from the merchants of Benares, to save themselves from pillage. Arrangements were also quickly concluded with the Emperor, who was detached from the league : but the Nawab of Oude would not consent to deliver up either Mir Cossim or Sumroo. Whilst these negociations were pending, Chunar still held out. It had been twice assaulted in vain, as the steepness of the ascent to the fort enabled the defenders, who gallantly resisted, to roll down large stones on the assailants, by which numbers were bruised or slain ; and, as the Nawab's troops were collecting again in force, the siege was temporarily raised. Major Munro went home this year, and resigned the command of the army to General Carnac, who was more successful in negotiating with the directors at home, than skilful in defeating the enemy in the field, and who had managed to get restored to the service, and to be placed in command.
Early in this year, the farce of nominating a Nawab to the Guddi at Múrshedabad was again enacted, as Mir Jaffier died in January, 1765 : and a sum of about ten laks of rupees was received in presents on this occasion by the leading members of the Government. But such transactions were no longer to be permitted ; the iniquity of the Company's 'servants in Bengal had now come to the full; and the proprietors of India stock, then a more influential body than at present, with an almost unanimous consent, determined to send Clive out again with full powers :
The glaring and unblushing corruption of the Company's civil servants was to be put down with a strong hand, as also the whole system of the inland trade; a better adminstration of justice and revenue was to be
introduced, and a reduction in the expencos of the Goverment effected, especially in the military department - P. 501.
Lord Clive landed on the 3rd May, and soon commenced his arrangements for reform in both the military and civil branchés of the service. In this latter department, four gentlemen rapidly resigned ; one was suspended; and one, accused of serious malversation, committed suicide. But as we are not now reviewing the civil, but the military affairs of those days, we pass on to notice the manner in which Lord Clive re-organized the army. This was now ordered to be divided into three brigades, each consisting of a company of artillery, one European regiment, and seven battalions of sepoys. The company of artillery consisted of seven commissioned officers, 102 Europeans, and a body of lascars to assist in working the guns. The strength of each European regiment was as follows:
1 Colonel, commanding the whole Brigade.
36 Corporals. 1 Captain-Lieutenant.
27 Drummers. Lieutenants.
630 Privates. 18 Ensigns.
In those days all the field officers had companies : as the European force in India was originally raised in independent companies, which were afterwards formed into regiments. The establishment of a battallion, consisted of :1 Captain.
30 Jemadars. 2 Lieutenants.
1 Native Adjutant. 2 Ensigns.
10 Trumpeters. 3 Serjeants.
30 Tom Toms. 3 Drummers.
80 Havildars. 1 Native Commandant.
50 Naicks. 10 Subadars.
690 Privates. With each brigade was a rissalah of cavalry ; and a fourth company of artillery was permitted for the garrison of Fort William. The ordnance, attached to each brigade, consisted of six 6-pounders, two bowitzers, and twelve or fourteen 3pounders. The professional reader will at once observe the great disproportion, which existed between the number of guns required for each brigade, and the strength of the company of artillery-men to work the guns. The Lascars of those days were, as artillery-men, totally useless. In Clive's whole system there is nothing so faulty, as the endeavour made to combine the duties of the artillery and infantry soldier; and nothing shows so clearly