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Fig. 91.-ROMAN LEGIONARY SWORD FROM MAINZ (No. 232). 1:4. Reliefs 2:3.

on the latter's return, in the year 17 A.D., from his victorious campaigns against the Germans, in the course of which he had recovered one of the legionary eagles which Varus had lost. The emperor, robed as a deity, is seated on a throne, resting his left arm on a shield which is inscribed FELICITAS. TIBERI—"The Good Fortune of Tiberius ”—and holding in his right hand a small figure of Victory with wreath and palm, which he has just taken from his returning general. Germanicus stands before him in military attire, with his right hand stretched out. In the background is an armed figure, perhaps a soldier of the guard, and behind the emperor a winged Victory is alighting, and brings a shield upon which is the legend VIC · AVG-“ The Victory of Augustus.” The middle of the scabbard is occupied by a medallion charged with a portrait of Tiberius, and at the point is a larger plate which is divided into two fields. The uppermost has a representation of a Roman eagle and two standards in a temple, and in the other is an Amazon armed with battle-axe and lance. It would probably be wrong to connect the standards with those of Varus; but the figure of the Amazon calls to mind the words of Horace, who remarks with wonder, in an ode which celebrated the success of Drusus, the father of this Germanicus, against the Germans of the Danube, that those barbarians should be armed with the Amazonian axe. It may be that in Rome of the next generation popular fancy attributed this legendary weapon also to the Germans of the Rhine, and the Amazon is a classical allusion to the campaigns which the sword commemorates. From the contrast of the elaboration and elegance of the design with the roughness and cheapness of the execution, it would seem that the weapon is one of many copies which were turned out for some official purpose, and it is probably a decoration, a sort of medal, which was presented to the officers who had served with Germanicus.

Other remains of Roman swords are less complete. There are several fragments of scabbards, a bronze guard, two ivory pieces which may have been pommels of the hilt or caps of the sheath, and a good specimen of an entire hilt in bone (No. 233). This is very similar to the classical Greek pattern. The mace, of which a bronze head from Rome, with part of the wooden haft attaching, is here exhibited (No. 233*), was not part of the soldier's usual armour. Weapons which show little difference of form in Greek or

i Od. iv. 4, 17 ff.

Roman times are the sling-bolts (No. 234) and arrowheads (Nos. 235, 236). The inscribed sling-bolt from Marathon (No. 220; fig. 86) has already been mentioned, and the others similarly bear inscriptions : a personal name, of the maker or the general or the slinger; or the name of the state from whose army it was shot“ Of the Corinthians ”; or a message to the bullet or to the enemy _" Strike hard,” and “Take this."

The arrowheads range from Mycenaean times to the Roman

Fig. 92.-ROMAN ARROWHEADS (No. 236). 2:3.

Empire. The earliest, and those which come from Marathon, have already been described in their places, and later types do not show much improvement upon these. The Roman arrowheads are from Xanten, the ancient Castra Vetera, on the lower Rhine (No. 236; fig. 92).

(232) Cat, of Bronzes, 867. See in general Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Gladius, Glans, Hasta, Pugio ; Evans, Prehistoric Tombs of Knossos; Undset, Die aeltesten Schwertformen (Zeitschr. f. Ethnologie, 1890); Naue, Die vorrömischen Schwerter.

X.--HOUSE AND FURNITURE.

(Wall-Cases 25–40.) Cases 25-40 contain furniture, lamps and lamp-stands, cooking utensils, objects used in connection with the bath, and objects illustrating the methods of heating buildings and supplying them with water. A general description of Greek and Roman houses will first be given, in order that their arrangements may be better understood. In recent years the excavations in Crete have brought to light remains of great palaces, which may be regarded as prototypes of the Homeric palace. But into the structure of these palaces and into the problems connected with the Homeric house

it is not necessary to enter here. A brief description will be given, first of the Greek house in the historic period, and then of the Roman house.

The Greek house. The fundamental distinction between the ancient and modern house is that the one looked inwards, the other looks outwards. The ancient house received its light and

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Fig. 93.-PLAN OF A GREEK HOUSE AT PRIENE, FACING SOUTH. air either from the open courtyard, round which it was built, or else from a large aperture in the roof. The former was the prevailing arrangement in Greece, the latter (in the earlier period) that adopted in Italy. The average Greek house was divided into two distinct portions, one for the men, the other for the women. Its rooms opened out from a central court, which was surrounded

1 Cf. Burrows, The Discoveries in Crete, passim ; Lang, Homer and his Age, pp. 209–228.

by a portico. On the side facing south there was usually a recess, specially adapted to make a sunny dwelling-room. Sometimes the women occupied an upper floor. At Athens, when the city was at the height of her power, the private houses were remarkable for their unpretentious character, and in the fourth century B.c. the orator Demosthenes upbraided his fellow-citizens with their lapse from this simplicity. “If any of you knows,” he exclaims, “ the sort of house which Themistokles, Miltiades, and the distinguished men of that time lived in, he sees that it was in no wise more pretentious than that of the ordinary citizen, whereas the public buildings and institutions were so magnificent that they could not

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be surpassed by any subsequent edifice.”] The outside of the average Greek house was probably very destitute of architectural ornament, presenting a wide space of blank wall broken but by few windows. The wall was generally made of sun-dried brick, a fact which accounts for the Greek expression for a burglar, viz., “wall-digger ” (Telwpúxos). This was the natural mode of breaking into a house when no convenient windows presented themselves. As a plan of the normal Greek house of Hellenistic times, that of one excavated at Priene on the west coast of Asia Minor may be given. The ground plan (fig. 93) shows a central court B withdrawn from the noise and bustle of the streets, and only

c. Aristocr. 207.

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