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candle. The Etruscan candelabra and many of the candelabra found at Herculaneum and Pompeii consist of a base in the form of three legs or paws, very commonly those of lions, a tall stem, and a circular support or spreading arms for the lamps at the top. An Etruscan example of the sixth century B.c. is seen in No. 251, with four spreading arms for hanging lamps, and a pin for raising the wicks, with head in form of a Gryphon. Other varieties of Etruscan candelabra, generally decorated with human figures, will be seen in Cases 57–60 of the Bronze Room. The human figure appears in the small Etruscan candelabrum No. 252 in this exhibition, where the cup at the top is for a floating wick. In Roman times another variety is also common, composed of a massive base with three or more spreading arms, from which lamps were suspended. Such a stand (No. 253) is seen on the upper shelf of Cases 29–30. A very primitive example (ca. seventh century B.c.) of a candelabrum is that in terracotta (No. 254 ; fig. 102) from Kameiros, consisting of a female figure of columnar form supporting a lamp with three nozzles. A point which may be specially noted in regard to some of the bronze stands of the Roman period is the decoration of the shaft, which often takes the form of a climbing animal. Fig. 103 has a panther, a cock, and a bearded serpent on the shaft. These animals, like the symbols which appear on the bronze hands (see above, p. 47), probably have a magical significance. An ingenious expanding Roman bronze lampstand (No. 255) from the Hamilton Collection should be noticed in the lower part of Case 30. The central rod attached to the circular lamp-support can be raised at will, and secured in place by means of a bronze pin passed through one of the pairs of holes pierced in the side rods.
The lamps themselves in Cases 31 and 32) are of terracotta or bronze, and are for the most part of the Roman period. Their essential parts are (1) the well for the oil, formed by the body of the lamp and fed from an opening above (in the bronze lamps this opening is covered by means of a lid, sometimes hinged, sometimes secured by a chain, as in fig. 104); (2) the nozzle for the insertion of the wick. The nozzle generally takes the form of a projecting spout, but the arrangement varies very considerably in different lamps, and a single lamp is often furnished with several nozzles. An epigram tells of a lady named Kallistion, who dedicated to | Id., xiv. 44 :
Esse vides lignum; serves nisi lumina, fiet
De candelabro magna lucerna tibi.
Serapis of Kanopos a lamp with twenty nozzles. The lamps might either be simply placed on a candelabrum or else suspended from it. Several of the bronze lamps have chains for the latter purpose (No. 256; fig. 104). A peculiar bronze hook, of which there are
latter could be carried or suspended at will. A very primitive form of lamp (No. 257) is of the pre-historic period known as Mycenaean, and was found, in the course of the Museum excava
tions at Enkomi in Cyprus, built into masonry. It consists of a thin sheet of bronze with a spout, and would contain oil upon which a wick floated. The numerous Graeco-Roman bronze lamps in these cases show a great variety of form. Heads of Seilenos, Pan, negroes, etc., appear side by side with a fir-cone, a foot, a duck, or a wolf. The handles often terminate in an animal's head, e.g. that of a horse, a dog, a lion, or a swan (cf. fig. 104 above). The cheaper terracotta lamps are freely decorated with designs taken from daily life or mythology. Numerous specimens of these lamps will be seen in Table-Case B in the Fourth Vase Room. A very elaborate example (No. 258) in the form of a ship is seen here in the bottom of Case 32, where the numerous holes for wicks should be noted. A peculiar variety of clay lamp is that with a central tube for fastening on to a spiked support. Such lamps are
found mainly in Sicily, and Fig. 106.—BRONZE LANTERN (No. 261). 1:4. on the North coast of Africa,
and are of late Greek date. Two are shown in Case 31 (No. 259). The lamp fillers, as may be seen from the bronze specimen exhibited, closely resembled the lamps themselves (No. 260).
Besides lamps, lanterns were also largely in use, especially for outdoor purposes. Such a portable Roman lantern (in Case 32) is here illustrated (No. 261; fig. 106). It is cylindrical in shape and has a hemispherical cover, which could be raised from the body of the lantern. The latter was enclosed with plates of some transparent material such as horn, bladder, or linen. Bladder was a cheap substitute for horn, and Martial in an epigram makes a lantern say:
“Though not of horn, do I appear less bright?
Can you detect the bladder-wall at sight?”. That talc was also used is shown by the fact that several of the lanterns in the Museum at Naples have their walls made of this material. Just below the lantern is a small bronze statuette, which has formed the body of a knife (No. 262). A grotesque figure is walking with a lantern in his right hand, and a basket slung over his shoulders. It was found at Behnesa, in Egypt,
Fig. 107.-BRONZE Couch (RESTORED).
and probably represents a sportsman returning in the evening with his spoils. The lantern carried by him very closely resembles the one described above.
(6) General furniture.— Most of the objects shown in Cases 27, 28, are of Roman date, but Roman furniture was so largely derived from the Greek that they may be regarded as illustrating Greek furniture as well. A bronze couch (No. 263) has been wrongly restored as a seat. The two sections of the couch, now placed one above the other, were originally set at either end, and connected by a long wooden framework. The curved pieces of bronze, ending in medallions representing busts of Satyrs and heads of mules, and heads of Medusa and ducks respectively, now put underneath the seat, are really end-pieces of the support placed at the extremity of the couch. (See the | Mart., xiv. 62:
Cornea si non sum, numquid sum fuscior ? aut me
Vesicam contra qui venit esse putat ?
restoration of a similar couch annexed, fig. 107.)? Several supports from couches are seen in this case, generally terminating in the head of a horse or mule. Below the couch is a small bronze stool (No. 264), without arms or back, of a type not uncommon at Pompeii. Two tripods with expanding legs are placed in the bottom of Cases 27–28. One of these (No. 265) has an arrangement similar to that of the candelabrum No. 255, whereby it could be heightened at will. These tripods were used as small tables. A well preserved wooden table-leg (No. 266) in the form of a dog springing up, is seen in Case 26. It was found at Kertch (the ancient Panticapaeum) in the Crimea. Ancient objects of wood are rarely preserved except in Egypt, but S. Russia has yielded a relatively large number of such antiquities.
(237) Cat. of Bronzes, 2573-4; (241) Archaeologia, XLIII., p. 250 ff; (247) and (248), Cat. of Vases, IV., F 259 and F 267; (261) Cf. Arch. Anz., 1900, p. 192 ff. ; (263) Cat. of Bronzes, 2561; Ransom, Couches and Beds of the Greeks, etc., p. 98, pl. 9; (266) Cf. Ant. du Bosph. Cimm., pl. lxxxi, where a restoration of a table with a leg of this kind is shown.
On the Greek house generally, see Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Domus, and E. A. Gardner in Journ. Hell. Stud., XXI. (1901), p. 293 ff.; and id. in Camb. Comp. to Gk. Stud., p. 551 ff. On the Roman house, see Daremberg et Saglio, loc. cit., and Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii.
Greek Dress.—The dress of the Greeks is remarkable for its simplicity. There was really only one type of garment, but by differences of size, material, and arrangement, it appears in many forms. The essential character of all Greek clothes is that they were rectangular pieces of cloth, which could be draped in various ways, according to the fashion of the day or the fancy of the wearer.
The earliest dress of women which is represented in art (fig. 109) is that which was known as the Dorian chiton, or tunic. It was an oblong sheet of woollen cloth, measuring rather more than the height of the wearer, and about twice the span of her
1 After the restoration of a couch from Boscoreale given in Arch. Anz., 1900, p. 178.