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Head - and foot - coverings.—Both the Greeks and the Romans covered their heads, when necessary, with their loose mantles (figs. 112, 119, 120), and hats were not in general use. Riders and travellers sometimes wore the Thessalian petasos, a hat with a raised crown (fig. 117), or the Macedonian kausia, which was flatter in shape. Sailors and workmen wore a conical felt hat (pilos), as in the statuette of the blacksmith Hephaestos (fig. 114). Women are sometimes represented with a circular hat which rises to a high point in the centre (fig. 112).
In the footwear there was more distinction. The Romans had a national foot-covering, the calceus, which was always worn with the toga. Part of Cicero's charge against Verres was that the Roman Praetor wore sandals, as well as other Greek dress. The calceus was a leather boot reaching well above the ankle and bound with thongs, which were fastened to the sole and heel, and after being wound round the leg, were tied in pairs in front. The number and arrangement of the thongs were regulated according to the rank of the wearer. Senators had two pairs, which were tied one above the other. Their boots were also made of red leather, and were adorned with an ivory crescent on the toe. Ordinary citizens doubtless had calcei of a simpler
Fig. 121.-BRONZE STATU
fi kind, such as the boot which the negro ETTE OF A LAR, SHOWING slave is represented as cleaning in the
THE Cinctus Gabinus. bronze statuette (No. 267; fig. 122). Another Roman boot was the caliga, for military use. This was also bound up the leg with thongs, but the actual foot-covering, as illustrated by a cast from a relief in the Third Graeco-Roman Room (No. 268), and by a marble foot (No. 269), was more after the fashion of a sandal, laced on the instep. A leather shoe, which was found in London, has the same close network at the heel (No. 270).
The sandals were similar, but had fewer straps, and these passed between the toes in front. A Greek vase in the shape of a foot (No. 271), a work of Attic fabric of the early fifth century B.C.,
shows a very simple form of sandal, which becomes more elaborate, without departing from the type, in the foot of the Hermes of Praxiteles (No. 272; fig. 123), dating rather more than
a century later. Other vases and models illustrate similar sandals.
Greek boots were made like the Roman caliga, by winding the strings of the sandal up the leg; but a more substantial boot was used by sportsmen and travellers (see fig. 117). It is represented here by some models (Nos. 273-5), and bears a great resemblance to the modern lace-boot. Although the upper part of the sandal was light, the sole was usually thick and heavy; the reason being that sandals
were for outdoor wear, and at home Fig. 122.-BRONZE STATUETTE both men and women went bare
OF A NEGRO SLAVE CLEANING
foot. A well-preserved pair of soles
is exhibited (No. 276). They are made of wood and shod with a bronze plate, which is held in place by iron nails. Another pair from Egypt is made of cork, and the edges have been gilt (No. 277). The hob-nails in the sole were sometimes arranged in such a way as to impress a word or symbol on the ground. On a vase in the shape of a boot (No. 273) the nails form the
Fig. 123. - Foot OF THE HERMES letters alpha and omega, and OF OLYMPIA (No. 272). 1:9. between them is a mystic symbol, the swastika. A delicate gold model of a boot (No. 275) has NATOY on its sole, the Greek word for walk. A shoe has been found in Egypt on which the nails were so arranged as to leave in every footprint of the lady who wore it the fascinating legend ΑΚΟΛΟΥΘΕΙ, Follow me.
On Greek Dress, cf. Lady Evans, Greek Dress; on Roman, Heuzey in Rev. de l'art ancien et moderne, 1897. See also W. Amelung, Die Gewandung der alten Griechen u. Römer, Leipzig, 1903 (Text to Cybulski's Tabulae quibus antiquitates Graecae et Romanae illustrantur); Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Pallium, Peplos.
Toilet.—In the most personal aspects of life and manners there is least room for change, for in the course of ages it is not man that has altered, but his surroundings; and the study of such intimate details reveals a close similarity between the ancient and the modern worlds. So in the cult of the toilet there will be found no novelty to excite surprise, but the modern votary will rather wonder that her ingenious devices are as old as vanity itself.
To begin with the more necessary implements, the combs go back to a high antiquity. An ivory comb from Enkomi in Cyprus dates from the Mycenaean age (No. 279; fig. 124). It is of simpler form than later combs, having only one row of teeth. The others are of the Greek and Roman periods, and are made both of wood and bone. The usual pattern is that of the modern MODIUNRIVHET tooth-comb, with a row of teeth on each side of the body -one coarse and one fine. There are wooden examples from Kertch, in South Russia (No. 280). More elaborate is the ivory piece, which is decorated with reliefs, a Gryphon and a lion on one side and two cranes at a fountain on the other (No. 281). Another
Fig. 124.-IVORY COMBS, OF THE MYof good Roman period is carved
CENAEAN AND ROMAN PERIODS by an amateur hand with an (Nos. 279, 282-3). 1:3. inscription, doubtless in compliment to the lady to whom it belonged (No. 282; fig. 124). The legend reads MODESTINA-V.H.E.E—the four letters at the end being perhaps abbreviated epithets of the fair Modestina, Virgo) Honesta) E(t) (gregia). A different type appears in the triangular pocket-comb, which fits into a protecting case (No. 283; fig. 124). This belongs to the end of the Roman Empire, the fourth century A.D., and may already show the influence of barbarian art. Similar combs were brought to England by the Danes, and some of them, which have been found at York and elsewhere, are exhibited in the British and Mediaeval Department. The razor is another toilet instrument which existed in the
earliest times. No prehistoric specimens are in this collection, but a primitive shape is represented by two circular blades with stirrup-like handles (No. 284 ; fig. 125). Others are of square spade shape, with a twisted loop handle and a hole in the blade. One of these is from Athens (No. 285;
fig. 126). A third type is Fig. 125.-BRONZE RAZOR OF PRIMITIVE SHAPE (No. 284). 1:2.
shown in three razors of Phoe
nician origin (from Sardinia and Carthage), with long hatchet blades (No. 286; fig. 127). These are ornamented with engraving, and have handles in the
Fig. 126.- BRONZE RAZOR FROM ATHENS (No. 285). 1:2. shape of swans' heads. All are made of bronze, and were no doubt capable of taking an edge so keen as to render them far more efficacious than their present appearance would suggest.
Next to the razors are placed various tools of which the functions are easily understood. There are several nail-files with a roughened surface, and a smooth notch for polishing (No. 287 ; fig. 128). Two of these are combined with ear-picks, which were in general use at Rome. They have a minute bowl at the end of a slender arm. A very elegant ear-pick, which has a leaf-shaped scraper at the other end, is made of silver (No. 288 ; fig. 129). Others end in a sharp point, which may have been used either for
Fig. 128.- BRONZE NAIL-FILE (No. 287). 1:2.
Fig. 129.—SILVER EAR-PICK (No. 288). 3:5.
a tooth-pick or a stilus pen (cf. p. 185). In the latter case, the ear-pick would no doubt have served to stimulate the thoughts of the unimaginative writer. Another ear-pick is combined with a pair of tweezers and some other tools now lost (No. 289). The tweezers were used for plucking out such hairs as Roman fashion deemed unsightly.
For mirrors the ancients were at a disadvantage. The use of glass was known, but was not common, and the ordinary reflecting medium was a sheet of burnished metal. There are, however, two genuine looking-glasses-one in a leaden frame, from Olbia (No. 290), and the other set, with several fragments, in a plaster slab, from Gheyta, in Egypt (No. 291). The glass was probably