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of its art as Geometric, are also of simple design. They have plainly curved bows, which are sometimes strung with beads (No. 330; fig. 136), or moulded in bead-patterns (No. 331), and are distinguished by large plates which are often engraved (No. 332; fig. 137). Another early Greek type is decorated with figures of birds, modelled in the round (No. 333; fig. 138). All these examples come from the island of Rhodes. Similar types were excavated at Ephesus (No. 334). Some from Cyprus are quite distinct, and seem to have no connection with
the others (No. 335; fig. 139). In the classical period the fibula was little used in Greece, in consequence of modifications in dress which rendered such fastenings unnecessary.
In Italy, on the other hand, the fibula flourished exceedingly. The plain wire original was soon elaborated. The bow was thickened, and came to resemble a leech or a boat (No. 336 ; fig. 140); the catch was elongated (No. 337; fig. 141); or the wire was bent into fantastic and serpentine shapes (No. 338), and the undulating bow was adorned with horn-like pairs of projections (No. 339). A curious development appears in the catch
plate, which was originally the end of the wire rolled up in a spiral coil, but afterwards became a flat disc ornamented with a
pattern which preserves the tradition of its origin (No. 340; fig. 142). Spiral coils constitute the whole decoration of a type of brooch which
has been found in Central Fig. 141.-ITALIAN FIBULA (No. 337). 1:2.
Europe, especially at Hallstatt,
but occurs also in Greece and, more rarely, in Italy (No. 341; fig. 143). Many of the Italian bows are strung with ornaments. Bronze discs and amber beads were frequently used (No. 342). The fibulae which came next in sequence are called, from the site in Switzerland where most remains of their period have been found, the La Tène types. These are distinguished by the turning back of the long catch towards the
bow, with which it ultimately unites (No. 343; fig. 144). At the same time improvement was made in the spring, which becomes a double coil projecting on each side of the body. Fibulae of this type were superseded and absorbed by the eclectic patterns of the Roman Empire.
The Roman fibula was more like a brooch than a safety-pin, if a distinction can be drawn between the two: the bow tended to become broad and heavy, while the pin was often made separately and attached by a hinge. But it shows a strong connection with the La Tène types, especially in the double coil of the spring, which was often protected by a sheath (No. 344). Even when the spring was no longer used, the fibula retained this cross-bow shape (No. 345; fig. 145). The elaborate bronze brooch in the form of a ribbed band passing through a ring (No. 346; fig. 146), is stamped underneath with the name of the maker (VLATI), in
colours is hird and fourth common at this time, mhese
the manner of the Roman pottery. Enamel and metal inlay was liberally applied in the decoration of the later brooches. A large collection with great variety of shapes is exhibited. The effect of the bright colours is best seen in the big round pieces which were popular in the third and fourth centuries A.D. (No. 347; fig. 147). Animal forms were also common at this time, and were similarly decorated with inlay (No. 348; fig. 148). These types were widely spread over the western provinces of the Empire, and continued in use among the nations who succeeded to the Roman power.
XII.-WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
(Wall-Cases 41-44 and Table-Case H.)
Greek Weights.-In Case B of the First Vase Room will be seen the plaster model of a large stone object of triangular form, pierced towards the apex with a hole. It has the design of an octopus on either side, and may with some probability be regarded as a standard hanging weight (64 pounds). This object was found by Dr. Evans at Knossos in Crete, in the “ Palace of Minos,” and may be dated roughly at 2000 B.C. A set of very early weights of the Mycenaean period from Cyprus is in Case 41, consisting of haematite objects in the form of sling-bolts
(No. 350), passing in a series of gradations from large to small. No definite system can, however, be deduced from these weights.
In the historic period there were apparently two weight standards in common use at Athens, the Aeginetan and the Solonian. The standard weight of the Aeginetan system was the heavy mina of 9,722 grains (about 13 lb. avoirdupois). The Solonian (Euboic) mina weighed normally 6,737 grains (nearly 1 lb. avoirdupois), but there was a special heavy mina in use which weighed exactly double the normal. This last was the original mina introduced by Solon, which gradually gave way to the light mina of half its weight. Weights of the Aeginetan and Solonian systems are here exhibited, which in many cases show considerable variation from the norm. The mina was subdivided into 100 drachmae, and the drachma into 6 obols. Certain stamped devices distinguish these Attic weights, viz., the astragalos or
See Ann. of Brit. School at Athens, VII., p. 42, fig. 7.
knuckle-bone, the amphora, the tortoise, the dolphin, and the crescent. Fig. 149 shows three weights of the later Solonian standard, a mina in lead stamped with a dolphin and inscribed MNA (7,010 grs.), a half mina in lead (3,399 grs.) with the device of a tortoise and the inscription AHMO (= dýuou), “ of the people,” and a bronze weight of 4 drachmae (283 grs.) stamped with an amphora and the word TEXAPEE. Sometimes a half tortoise occurs, as on No. 351, a quarter mina, or a half amphora, as on
No. 352, a one-third mina. Various other standards are represented in this case, e.g. that of Kyzikos in Asia Minor, but these need not be particularly described. A noteworthy weight is the bronze one (No. 353), in the form of a series of rising steps, inscribed on the top Aloe. This is probably a temple-weight, very likely used to weigh votive objects. Weights of a similar type have been found at Olympia. The peculiar series of stone weights (No. 354) decorated with female breasts was found in the precincts of the temple of Demeter at Knidos, and may be regarded as temple