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weights, probably made as a votive offering. They do not seem to correspond to any known standard.
Some weights, especially when in bronze, served as standards. A good example is the large square weight from Herakleia in Bithynia, with a head of Herakles in relief (No. 355 ; fig. 150). It is inscribed “To the divine Augusti and the people" (Beois Sebaotois kai to dáuw) on the rim in front, and on the sides with
the names of the aediles P. Clodius Rufus and Tertius Vacilius (wt. 41,494 grs., nearly 6 lb. avoirdupois).
A Greek inscription mentions weights in the form of a stag and a figure of Atalanta.l We have instances of weights of artistic form in these Cases. The hanging weights from steelyards in particular (No. 356; fig. 150) are often in the form of a head or bust. Weights in the form of a pig (No. 357; fig. 150), an astragalos (No. 358), etc., will be noticed.
Roman weights.—The standard was here the libra or pound,
1 Bull. de Corr. Hell., 1893, p. 4.
which weighed 5,050 grains, and was subdivided into 12 unciae or ounces, the ounce again being divided into 24 scruples. The Roman weights are here grouped according to multiples or
Fig. 152.–ROMAN BRONZE STEELYARD (No. 361). L. 124 in.
divisions of the pound, and generally have their values marked upon them in dotted characters. Thus the pound is marked 1, the half pound S(emis), and so on. Some of the numerous dark stone weights have inscriptions, showing that they had been certified by proper authority. Thus one of two librae (No. 359) is inscribed : “On the authority of Q. Junius Rusticus, cityprefect" [167 A.D.). In Sicily and Magna Graecia weight called a litra was used instead of the Roman pound, weighing rather less than the libra. A set of litra weights in bronze, of late Imperial date, is shown in Case 41 (No. 360). An ounce weight (marked > . A in silver, and weighing 389 grains), belonging to this series, is seen in fig. 149 above.
Weighing Instruments.—Of these there are two chief varieties, the simple balance (libra), and the steelyard (statera). The Greeks seem to have used the former only; the Romans used both. The use of the balance is illustrated by the Greek vase with the design of Hermes weighing the souls of Achilles and
Memnon, and by the Roman lamp showing a stork weighing an elephant and a mouse (fig. 151). The steelyard was widely used in the Roman world. Owing to its portability, it was doubtless much employed by hawkers and streetsellers, as at the present day. Out of the several exhibited here, one example, from Catania in Sicily (No. 361 ; fig. 152), may be described in detail. It consists
Fig. 153.--ROMAN BRONZE BALANCES (Nos. 362, 364). Ca. 1:4.
of a bronze rod of square section, divided into two unequal portions. The shorter portion has (a) two hooks suspended from chains attached to the end of the rod by a movable collar working in a groove (the object to be weighed was of course attached to these hooks); (b) three hooks, placed at intervals of about 3, 14, and 3 in. respectively from the collar, and suspended from small movable rings. These hooks are in different planes, corresponding to three of the four ridges in the longer portion of the bar. The bar is graduated on three of its four faces, viz., on the first with
nine divisions, each subdivided into twelfths. This scale was used when the steelyard was suspended by the hook nearest the graduated bar (as in the fig.). Objects weighing up to nine Roman pounds could thus be weighed by moving a sliding weight along the bar.
The figure V will be seen at the fifth pound, the half pounds are marked by three dots, and the twelfths correspond to the unciae. The second face begins with VI and goes up to twenty-three pounds. It was used when the steelyard was suspended by the middle hook. The third face starts with XXII pounds, and goes up to fifty-nine pounds. As in the second scale, intervals of five pounds are marked by the figures V and X. Fifty pounds is indicated by the Greek letter N. This third scale was used in conjunction with the hook nearest the collar. The sliding weight (now lost) must have weighed about 17,000 grs. (23 lb. avoirdupois). All the other steelyards here shown work on this principle, though many have only two graduated scales and two suspending hooks.
Fig. 154.—Roman BRONZE FOOT-RULE (No. 367). L. 292 mm.
The steelyard principle was also applied by the Romans to balances, with a view to avoiding the use of numerous small weights. An example is No. 362 (fig. 153), where one half of the bronze arm is graduated with twelve divisions corresponding to scruples (24 of an ounce). The sliding weight would thus be used to determine weights of less than half an ounce. The bar of another balance (No. 363) had 24 such divisions for determining any weight below the ounce. An interesting little balance (No. 364; fig. 153) may be mentioned here. At one end is a fixed weight in the form of a head of the Sun-god?). This balance was adapted to test the weight of an object weighing about 69 grains, perhaps a Roman coin such as the denarius or solidus.
Measures.-In Case H a few examples of ancient measures and geometrical instruments.
A Greek clay cup (No. 365), inscribed “Mekotúdiov, contains exactly half a pint. The Greek kotyle therefore, according to this standard, measured exactly a pint. The other measures are Roman. Nos. 366 and 367
are two Roman bronze foot-rules, measuring respectively 294 mm. (11:6 in.) and 292 mm. (11.5 in.). The normal Roman foot measured 296 mm., and was adopted under Greek influence, whereas the early Italic foot had only measured 278 mm. (slightly under 11 in.). Fig. 154 (No. 367) shows the subdivisions of these foot-rules. One side is marked by dots into sixteenths (digiti); another into twelfths (unciae); another into fourths (palmi). The foot-rule illustrated has the remains of a catch (indicated in the fig.) for keeping it rigid, when opened. The peculiar bronze
Fig. 155.-BRONZE PROPORTIONAL COMPASSES (No. 370). L. 74 in.
instrument numbered 369 may have been a surveyor's pocket compass with a sliding pencil to allow of circles of different radii being described. The use of the hinged rod (now broken off) at the knobbed end is obscure. Possibly it was connected with the measurement of angles. There are several pairs of ordinary compasses and dividers, and also two pairs of proportional (2:1) com passes (No. 370). One of these is figured here (fig. 155). Notice the method of tightening by means of a wedge, with the object of keeping the compasses fixed in any particular position.
Weights.-(350) Excavations in Cyprus, pl. xi, 368, etc.; on Greek and Roman weights in general, see Pernice, Griech. Gewichte, and Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Pondus; (353) Cf. Olympia, V., 801 ff.; (354) Newton, Disc, at Halicarnassus, II., pp. 387 and 804; (355) Mon, dell' Inst., 1855, pl. 1; (359) C.I.L., XIII., 10030 (10); (361) For the Roman steelyard, cf. Jahrb. d. arch. Inst., XIII., p. 74 ff. ; Vitr., de Arch., X. 8, 4; (364) Cf. Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Libra, fig. 4473.
Measures.—(365) Cat. of Vases, IV., F 595; (366) Cf. Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Pes; Anzeiger für schweizerische Altertumskunde, N.F., 1907, p. 39 ff.; Hermes, XXII., p. 17 ff. and p. 79 ff.; Ath. Mitt., IX. (1884), P. 198 ff.