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as might be impressed from a seal), e.g., a frog (fig. 177d). The illustration (fig. 177c) shows a suggested method of using them. The box is fastened by studs (passed through the holes in its floor) to the lid of the box to be secured. The string is inserted in a staple on the front of the box and tied in a knot, which is placed in the box and held fast by wax stamped with a seal. The projecting stud-heads would assist the natural tenacity of the wax, so that it would be impossible to remove the string without breaking the seal. Other arrangements are, of course, possible. For instance, the staple might not be used, and string might instead be tied round the box. The arrangement of the padlock above figured (p. 164) should be compared with that of these boxes.
Another form of seal was that consisting of two lead discs connected by a loop (No. 409). The discs were fused together and stamped on the outer surfaces with a design. (as in fig. 177c). In this way the loop was securely attached to the object to be protected. Probably these seals were attached to merchandise by manufacturers or customs officials, just in the same way as lead seals are used in our own time. Their use appears to have been confined almost, if not entirely, to Sicily.
A variety of labels in lead, bronze, and ivory is shown in this Case. They generally have a hole for attachment, and bear the name and initials of their owner. The bronze label (No. 410), to which a portion of the iron object to which it was attached still adheres, has the name of the owner, C. Junius Hermetus, inscribed upon it. Here should be described another type of seal, examples of which are exhibited in Table-Case H, viz. :
Stamps.—Two methods of sealing were practised by the Romans, one involving the use of signet-rings of gold, silver, or bronze with the impression of the seal cut in the metal or on a gem set in the bezel (see p. 139); the other, the use of a bronze tablet with a ring attached at the back for the insertion of the finger. The engraved ring was usually employed for purely personal purposes, such as the sealing of a letter or document, and the device of the seal was more or less ornamental ; the bronze tablets were used for commercial or domestic purposes and seldom bear anything but the name of the person using them.
These tablets are of various forms, but the majority are rectangular, and bear the owner's name, like the one in this Case from Arles (No. 411), with the name of Q. Julius Renatus; others have merely initials. Some are made in the form of a shoe or the sole of a foot, and this is a shape frequently employed by the
potters of the Roman period in Italy for stamping their names on · vases. Other forms to be here observed are a leaf (No. 412), a ship (No. 413), and a fish (No. 414). The letters in most cases are in relief, producing an impression in intaglio, and were sometimes first inked over, as is done for commercial purposes in modern times, and in the East also for signing official documents.
We have little specific evidence as to the particular uses of these stamps, but they were probably used mainly for stamping the plaster stoppers of wine-jars, loaves of bread, and such-like objects. Of bread-stamps there is an example in the Case, inscribed EDEI VIVAS (No. 414*); and at Herculaneum a loaf of bread was found with the name of the baker, “ Celer, slave of Q. Granius Verus," produced from one of these stamps. Among the bronze stamps in the Case is one (No. 415) inscribed partly in Latin, partly in Greek, “ Victory to Gaudens” (or Gaudentius); and another (No. 416) appears to be the stamp of a wine-merchant “at the sign of the Jug.” But these are exceptions to the ordinary type.
(397) On ancient locks, see Jacobi, Das Römerkastell Saalburg, p. 462 ff.; Diels, Parmenides, p. 117 ff.; Fink, Der Verschluss bei den Griechen u. Römern ; (405) With this box, cf. the terracotta money-box in Jahrb. d. arch. Inst., XVI., p. 168, figs. 6 and 7; (407) Similar seal locks have been found at Pompeii (Mus. Borb., IX., pl. xiv. 11); (408) Cf. Num. Chron., 1897, p. 293 ff. ; (409) Cf. Annali dell'Inst., 1864, p. 343 ff., and Mon, dell' Inst., VIII., pl. xi.
Cutlery.-In the corners of Cases 41 and 48 are casts of reliefs from the gravestone of L. Cornelius Atimetus, a Roman cutler of the first century A.D. One relief (No. 417; fig. 178) shows the cutler's workshop, with two men working at some object placed on an anvil in front of a furnace. One man holds the object with the tongs, the other hammers it into shape. Above them hang a knise, sickle, tongs, etc. The other relief (No. 418; fig. 179) represents the cutler's shop, with numerous knives and sickles hanging from a board. The cutler on the right, who wears the tunic only, is showing a knife to a customer on the left, who wears the toga (see p. 129 ff). In Table-Case G (close to this relief) will be seen a series of Greek and Roman knives, ranging from the long Mycenaean hunting knife from Ialysos in Rhodes (No. 419) to the numerous Roman pocketknives with bronze handles, frequently in the form of animals (No. 420). The iron blade has often rusted away, as will be seen from the illustration (fig. 180), which gives a selection of these knives. (a) represents a handle in the form of a panther catching a deer, (b) one in the form of a ram's head, with a leg projecting
Fig. 178.—Roman CUTLER'S FORGE (No. 417). Ht. 181 in. below to assist the grip, (e) a hound catching a hare. The iron blades are still preserved in the case of (c) and (d). The first, from Nîmes, has a bronze handle ending in a woman's head ; (d) has a handle of the same material in the form of a hound catching a hare.
(417) and (418) Altmann, Röm. Grabalt., p. 172 f. ; Amelung, Sculpt. d. Vat., pl. 30, p. 275 ft.
Pottery and other crafts.—Table-Case H contains various examples of the craftsman's work. One section is devoted to pottery. Here is seen the limestone figure of a Greek potter from Cyprus (No. 421; fig. 181), seated and modelling clay on the wheel. He reminds us of Homer's description of the potter's action when he compares the whirling motion of dancers to the revolving of a potter's wheel—“a motion exceeding light, as when a potter sits and makes trial of a wheel well fitted to his hands, to see whether it will run."1 Immediately behind is a potter's wheel in
terracotta (No. 422; fig. 182), which has in the centre a depression for the insertion of the pivot on which it turned. It was found on a primitive site at Gournià in Crete. As the clay spun round on the wheel the potter moulded it into shape inside and outside with his hands. The foot, the handles, and the neck of the vase were moulded separately as a rule and attached afterwards to the body. A design on a sixth century Greek vase here exhibited (No. 423 ; fig. 183) depicts a Greek potter in the act of attaching a handle to
1 11. xviii. 600 ff.
a cup which rests upon a wheel. When the vase or other object had been modelled in clay, it then had to be fired. For this purpose a kiln was required, such as one (probably Roman) excavated at Shoeburyness, a model of which is here exhibited (No. 424). It consists of a barrel-shaped chamber, at about half the height of which is a horizontal table on a conical support, with eight round openings pierced in its circumference to allow the heat to penetrate above. Fuel was introduced below through a small fire-chamber constructed at the side (fig. 184). The pack
Fig. 180.-ROMAN KNIVES AND KNIFE-HANDLES (No. 420). Ca. 1:2.
ing of the objects to be fired required considerable care. Sometimes the result was disastrous, as in the case of two batches of Roman lamps seen in this case, which have become fused together in the baking (No. 425; fig. 185). Painted vases naturally required several firings. The cover of a toilet-box (No. 426) shows the method of painting employed in the Greek red-figured vases ; here the grotesque head has been outlined in black, but the background has not been filled in with black in the usual way. Two terracotta heads with projecting stumps (No. 427) show the manner in which the terracotta figurines were built up of several parts. The heads were inserted into holes in the trunk, and were