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then fastened in position with clay. The mould for the lower part of a Roman lamp (No. 428; fig. 186) illustrates the way in which these common household articles were produced. The

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clay was pressed into the lower mould (such as the present one) and also into a corresponding upper mould which fitted into the projections here seen on the rim of the lower mould. The lamp was then ready for baking. Near the lamps is a mould (No. 428*)

for making a bowl of the ware called Arretine from its place of manufacture, Arretium in Central Italy. A cast from this mould is placed by it, and near the mould is a stamp (No.428**) with a design of a slave heating some fluid in a caldron. These stamps were used for producing the designs in the moulds, being impressed in the clay while it was soft.

Several specimens of these Fig. 183.-GREEK POTTER ATTACHING HANDLE TO VASE (No. 423).

moulds and bowls, which are

of about the first century B.C., will be seen in Cases 39-40 of the Fourth Vase Room.

Another part of the Case contains objects illustrating the processes employed in ancient metal work. A Greek vase of the sixth century B.C. (No. 429) depicts a map in the act of thrusting

a mass of metal into a blazing furnace. Anvil, tongs, and hammers are visible. There are several stone moulds for casting weapons and other objects in metal. Note the large one (No. 430) for a

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metal weight of a type similar to that with the head of Herakles in Case 41. The mould shows a female head with a cornucopia before it, apparently a personification of Profit (Képdos), whose name appears above the head. It should be observed that the moulds seen here are only half-moulds, and that a corresponding half-mould had to be placed in position before casting could be effected. This is well shown by a limestone half-mould from Rome (No. 431 ; fig. 187) for casting lead counters, with designs representing Victory, Fortune, and Athena. Here can be seen the channels by which the molten metal was introduced, and the holes for the studs joining the two half-moulds together. In one of these a lead stud still remains. On the opposite side of the Case are specimens of Roman enamel work. This method of decorating bronze objects was common in the third and fourth centuries after Christ. Several brooches thus ornamented will be seen in Case F among the articles of toilet (Nos. 347, 348; figs. 147, 148).

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Fig. 187.- LIMESTONE HALF-MOULD, WITH CAST FROM SAME (No. 431). Ht. 41 in.

Case H also contains examples of ivory inlay and fretwork, and a series of objects in various materials which bear witness to the use of the lathe in Greek and Roman times.

Above these antiquities is an interesting wooden box of Roman date from Panticapaeum, in the Crimea (No. 432). This has two sliding lids, above and below respectively, each furnished with two catches. The interior was divided by a horizontal partition, and was again subdivided into numerous small divisions. An inlaid pattern decorates the border of the box. Several boxes of this type have been found. In some instances they appear to have served as money boxes, in others they were intended to hold drugs

or cosmetics. The boxes in the Toilet-Case F (Nos. 301 ff.), in the form of a duck, a boar, and a shoe, should be compared with this box.

(421) Excavations in Cyprus, p. 93, fig. 145; (423) Cat. of Vases, II., B 432; (424) Proc. of Soc. of Ant., Ser. II., XVI., p. 40; (429) Cat. of Vases, II., B 507; (431) Cf. Bull, della Comm. Arch., XXXIII. (1905), p. 146 ff.; (432) Cf. Jahrb. d. arch. Inst., XVI., p. 187 f.; Bonner Jahrb., LII. (1872), pl. i.

Cf., in general, Walters, Hist. of Ancient Pottery; Blümner, Technologie u. Terminologie der Gewerbe u. Künste bei Griechen u. Römern.

XVI.-MEDICINE AND SURGERY.

(Table-Case H.)

, the go. Homeric the Ilio

Greek Medicine.-We are told in the Odyssey that every man in Egypt was a skilled physician, for the race came of the stock of Paeon, the god of healing. It was from Egypt, doubtless, that the Greeks of the Homeric age derived much of their medical knowledge. To Idomeneus in the Iliad the physician is a man worth many other men. If Plato remarks on the heroic treatment of the wounded Eurypylos, who was given a concoction of Pramnian wine, meal and grated cheese (not inaptly described as an inflammatory mixture)," there are several cases in which a more rational and scientific mode of treatment was employed. This is especially the case with surgical operations. In the case of Eurypylos, Patroklos cut the arrow from the thigh, washed the wound in warm water, and laid on a bitter root to ease the pain.4 Machaon extracted an arrow from the body of Menelaos and laid ointment on the wound.5

In the historic age of Greece we find temple or wonder-working medicine existing side by side with a highly developed school. The first is connected with the temples of Asklepios, notably those at Trikka in Thessaly, Kos, and Epidauros, the second with the great clan or school of the Asklepiadae, whose most illustrious member was Hippokrates of Kos. The method of healing practised in the temples was essentially a faith-cure, but the peaceful and healthy situation of such a site as that of Epidauros i Od. iv. 231. 2 11. xi. 514.

3 Rep. iii. 405-6. 4 II. xi. 844 ff.

5 Il. iv, 213 ff.

must have had a really beneficial influence. The priests doubtless resorted to every kind of artifice in order to impress the patient, who would naturally be worked up to a high pitch of excitement. One or two extracts from a large inscribed stone found at Epidauros will show the manner of the cures claimed to have been effected.

“A man who had all the fingers of his hand paralysed, except one, came as a suppliant to the god. On examining the tablets in the temple he was inclined to disbelieve the cures and to scoff at the inscriptions. He fell asleep and saw a vision. He thought that he was playing at dice beneath the temple and was about to make a throw, when the god appeared, seized upon his hand, and stretched out the fingers. When the god had left him he appeared to bend his hand and stretch his fingers out one by one. When he had straightened them all out, the god asked him whether he still disbelieved the tablets in the temple. He replied • No.' •Well, then,' said the god, because you disbelieved them before, though they were not unworthy of belief, in future your name is to be “ Unbeliever.”' When day broke, he went out healed."

Contrast with this the following brief but humorous entry:

“Nikanor, a lame man. He was sitting down, when a boy (a waking vision this time) snatched his crutch and made off. He got up and gave chase; and after this he became whole."

A lively account of temple-healing is given in the Plutus of Aristophanes, where the slave Karion relates the experiences of his master and himself when passing the night in the temple.2 Examples of the votive offerings deposited in the temples by those who had been made whole have been mentioned in the section on Religion and Superstition, p. 34 ff., and are to be seen in Cases 103–106.

The more serious side of Greek medicine is inseparably connected with the name of Hippokrates (born 460 B.c.), though the Koan school had existed some time before his birth. The Asklepiadae were originally members of a single clan, but the admission of persons from outside soon made the clan into a medical school. The famous Hippokratean oath, imposed upon members of the Koan school, shows the standard set up before the medical profession : “I will conduct the treatment of the sick for their advantage, to the best of my ability and judgment, and I will

1 I.G., IV. 951. Cf. Lechat, Epidaure, p. 142 ff.
2 Arist. Plut, 653 ff.

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