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the present instance the list was drawn up about 400 B.C. The following are some typical entries : (a) The “larger” gold necklace set with gems. It has twenty
rosettes and a ram's head pendant. Wt., 30 drachmae
(about 4.1 oz. troy).
The lower part of Case 97 contains an inventory (No. 54) of various garments dedicated to Artemis Brauronia, who had a shrine upon the acropolis of Athens. We know that it was the custom of women after childbirth to dedicate garments to Artemis, and in particular to Artemis Brauronia. That the garments were often anything but new is shown by the fact
FORIVNALAVCE that several are described as “in
PROSALVIFFREDIV| rags.” A typical extract from the DOMINORVMNR inscription may be given : “A purple SEVERI Pil:ET. dress, with variegated chequer pattern.
ANTONINI PIIAVCHE Dedicated by Thyaene and Malthake.”
TIVLIAE AVG MATRIS
PROXİ MV SALIBHILIS
VOIO SVSCEPTO of the practice of dedicating altars to
Do Do members of Roman Imperial houses is furnished by the inscription (fig. 17) in the lower part of Case 98. It Fig. 17.--ALTAR DEDICATED FOR formed the front of a marble altar, THE SAFE RETURN OF SEPand is a dedication by an Imperial
TIMIUS SEVERUS AND HIS
FAMILY (No. 55). Ht. 2 ft. freedman named Antonius, who was in charge of the “ Department of Petitions,” for the safe return of the Emperor Septimius Severus, his wife Julia Domna, and his sons Caracalla and Geta. The name of Geta has been erased in conformity with an edict of Caracalla, who murdered his brother, and ordered that his name should be erased from every inscription throughout the Roman Empire. The date of the inscription is about 200 A.D.
Two curious examples of dedicatory tablets (Nos. 56, 57) are seen in the casts placed in the upper and lower parts respectively of Case 101. The originals, from Slavochori, probably the site of the ancient Amyklae near Sparta, are in the Hall of Inscriptions. The first was dedicated by Anthusa, daughter of Damaenetos, a ÚTogtúrpla or under-tirewoman in the service of a temple, possibly
that of Dionysos, for we know that this god had a temple near Amyklae, which none but women might enter. On the relief is a series of objects connected with the toilet, such as a mirror, a comb, a box for cosmetics, a case containing a sponge, a pair of slippers, etc. Possibly the dedicator was in charge of objects of this nature. The other relief, from the same place, was dedicated by a priestess named Claudia Ageta, daughter of Antipater, and shows a very similar series of objects. Both these reliefs are of Imperial date.
In the bottom of Case 102 is the base of a statuette (No. 58; fig. 18) found at Curium in Cyprus. It bears an inscription, written both in Greek and in the native Cypriote syllabic characters: “Ellooikos, the son of Poteisis, dedicated this as a vow to Demeter and the Maid.” The inscription is of the fourth century B.C., and is of special interest on account of its bilingual character. Immediately below it is an altar (No. 59) dedicated
Fig. 18.–BASE WITH DEDICATION TO DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE (No. 58).
to the Bona Dea of Anneanum (a town in Etruria) by C. Tullius Hesper and Tullia Restituta. The Bona Dea was a goddess specially invoked by women. Hence we may suppose that it was Tullia Restituta more particularly who showed her thankfulness by this dedication. Two other large objects in marble of a votive character are exhibited in the bottom of Cases 103 and 104 respectively. The chest-like stool (No. 60) was offered by a priestess named Philis to Persephone, the basket (No. 61) by one Xeno to Demeter and Persephone. The basket is dedicated with peculiar fitness to the goddesses of corn and fruit, for it was in such woven baskets that the ears of corn were ingathered, while the chest, as has been pointed out, is also closely associated with Demeter and Persephone, who are frequently represented seated on it. Both of these last objects were found by Sir Charles Newton in the precinct of Demeter at Knidos in Asia Minor.
We now turn to a series of offerings which commemorate recovery from disease or bodily injury. The upper part of Cases
103-106 contains a set of marble reliefs (No. 62) found at the foot of the Payx at Athens, the rocky semicircular meeting-place of the Athenian people. They are dedicated by women-Eutychis, Isias, Olympias, and others—to Zeus the Highest, and have representations of various parts of the human body, such as eyes, breasts, arms, etc. These reliefs, which are of Roman date, are clearly thank-offerings for recovery from disease. There must have been a regular trade in these models, for Clement of Alexandria, writing about 200 A.D., talks of “those who manu
Fig. 19.—TERRACOTTA MODEL OF THE INTERNAL ORGANS (No. 66). 1:2. facture ears and eyes of precious wood and dedicate them to the gods, setting them up in their temples."1 No. 63, from a shrine of Asklepios in Melos, is a relief representing a left leg, dedicated, as the inscription shows, by way of thank-offering to the deities of healing, Asklepios and Hygieia. Next it is a small relief from Cyrene (No. 64), showing a right ear. There are several other objects here exhibited which were probably offered by grateful votaries in return for healing mercies. Such are the bronze ticket with a bronze leg suspended from it (No. 65), inscribed Strom., v. 566.
with the name of the donor Caledus, and two arms with a chain for suspension. In Cases 105 and 106 a whole series of terracotta votive hands, feet, eyes, breasts, etc., doubtless represent the thank-offerings of the poorer classes. With these is a curious terracotta model (No. 66; fig. 19) of the lungs (A), heart (B), liver (c), kidneys (D), spleen (E), and other internal organs of the human body. Though primarily of a votive character, it is of considerable interest to the student of ancient anatomy. A votive relief of rather different character is placed on the upper shelf. It represents two plaited locks of hair dedicated (as the inscription records) by Philombrotos and Aphthonetos, sons of Deinomachos, to Poseidon, god of the sea (No. 67 ; fig. 20). It was a common
Fig. 20.--SCULPTURED LOCKS OF HAIR DEDICATED TO POSEIDON (No. 67).
Ht. 134 in.
custom in Greece to dedicate hair at important crises of life, particularly to deities connected with water. Achilles, on the death of Patroklos, shore off for him the hair he was growing long as an offering to the river Spercheios.
Other objects illustrating the frequency and variety of Greek and Roman dedications may best be described in approximately chronological order. Two objects, which are more fully dealt with in other sections, may here be mentioned. In the sixth
century B.C. the athlete Exoidas dedicated to the Dioscuri, patrons of athletic exercise, the bronze diskos (Case 107; No. 130) with which he had conquered “the high-souled” Kephallenians in athletic contest. In the early fifth century B.C. Hieron and his subject Syracusans dedicated at Olympia in honour of Zeus a helmet captured from the Etruscans in the great naval victory off Kyme (474 B.c.). This helinet (No. 166; fig. 60) is placed with the other helmets in Case 117. The huntsman, no less than the athlete and the warrior, felt that the gods took an intimate part in his successes. This is illustrated by the inscribed bronze model of a hare in Case 103, with its head thrown back in the death agony (No. 68; fig. 21). The Ionic letters, of about 480 B.C.,
read : “ Hephaestion dedicated me to Apollo of Priene." This offering reminds us of another exhibited in the left-hand wall-case in the Greek Ante-Room downstairs. A small limestone statuette, found on the site of the Greek settlement of Naukratis in Egypt, represents a young huntsman with two boars and two hares slung over his shoulders. It is inscribed “ A dedication by Kallias ”probably to Aphrodite, since it was found within her precinct (Cat. of Sculpt., I., 118).2
Other interesting Greek dedications of an early date are the bronze tablet (Case 103: No. 69) found in Corfu, with an inscription showing it to be an offering by one Lophios; the silver ingot