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of the sixth century B.C., at a time when the Eleians and Heraeans of Arcadia were still dwelling in villages, and were not yet united each into a single city. It is written in the Aeolic dialect of Elis, and records a treaty between the two peoples named. There was to be a close alliance between them in respect of all matters of common interest, whether of peace or war. Any breach of the treaty, or any damage to the inscription recording the treaty, would involve a fine of a talent of silver to be paid by the offender to Olympian Zeus, the supreme Greek deity. The tablet was brought from Olympia by Sir William Gell in 1813.
No. 2 is a bronze tablet, with a ring at one end for suspension, recording a treaty made between the cities of Chaleion and Oeantheia on the Gulf of Corinth. It is in the Lokrian dialect, and can be dated to about 440 B.c. The main object of the treaty was to regulate the practice of reprisals between the citizens of the respective towns, and, in particular, to prevent injury to foreign merchants visiting either port. There are also provisions for ensuring a fair trial to aliens. The tablet was found at Oeantheia (Galaxidi), and was formerly in the Woodhouse collection.
Colonization.--This was a feature of peculiar importance in Greek life. In the course of the eighth and seventh centuries B.C. numerous colonists had left their homes on the mainland of Greece or on the coast of Asia Minor, and had settled principally in Southern Italy and Sicily, or round the shores of the Black Sea. The reasons for such emigration were sometimes political, but more often commercial. Between the mother-city and the colony relations of an intimate character were almost invariably maintained. Representatives from either city attended the more important festivals held in the other town, and the daughter-city not infrequently sought the advice of the mother-city in times of difficulty and danger. The inscription on the bronze tablet No. 3 illustrates the way in which colonists left one Greek state to settle in another comparatively near at hand, and also shows the relations existing between the colonists and the mother-state. At a date probably previous to 455 B.C. colonists from the Opuntian or Eastern Lokrians (inhabiting a district lying opposite to the island of Euboea) left their homes to settle in Naupaktos, a town situated on the narrowest part of the Gulf of Corinth, in the territory of the Western Lokrians. The question arose as to how far the colonists were to remain in connection with the mothercountry. The tablet shows that the settlers had the privilege of enjoying full social and religious rights on revisiting their native
city, although during their absence they were exempt from paying taxes to it. Under certain conditions they might resume their residence in the mother-state without fee, and they also had a right to inherit property left by a near relative in that state. Other provisions deal with judicial arrangements affecting the new settlers.
Proxenia.—Just as modern states appoint consuls in foreign countries in order that the interests of their citizens abroad may be protected, so the various Greek cities appointed their repre
sentatives in different foreign states. These representatives were chosen from the citizens of the town in which they acted, and their appointment was regarded as a special honour, carrying with it substantial privileges. The main functions of the proxeni were those of dispensing hospitality to travellers and assisting them in cases of difficulty, and of receiving ambassadors arriving from the state which they represented. They were also expected generally to further that state's commercial interests. The Athenians as a rule rewarded their proreni with the title of “ Benefactor," and
not infrequently presented them with a gold crown worth a thousand drachmae (about £40).
Two bronze tablets recording decrees of proxenia, passed by the people of Korkyra, are here exhibited. No. 4 (fig. 1), probably of the end of the fourth century B.C., records the grant of proxenia to Dionysios, son of Phrynichos, an Athenian. It mentions the
date, the appointment, and the right of possessing land and house property in Korkyra, the last evidently a reward granted to the proxenos for his services. No. 5 (fig. 2), of about 200 B.C., is a grant of proxenia to Pausanias, son of Attalos, a citizen of Am
brakia. He is accorded the usual honours, and the Treasurer is directed to provide the money for the engraving of the decree on bronze. Both these tablets were found in Corfu, the modern name of the ancient Korkyra. The persons appointed acted, of course, in Athens and Ambrakia respectively.
Law-courts at Athens. One of the most striking features of democratic Athens was its elaborate machinery for the administration of justice. The system of popular control began in the fifth century B.C., and reached its full development in the fourth. For petty offences the various magistrates had the power of inflicting a small fine, but graver charges were usually decided by a jury court. Those who composed these jury courts were called dikastae. They were chosen at first up to the number of six thousand from the entire body of citizens over thirty years of age, but later on apparently any citizen over thirty years of age was a qualified juryman. From the time of Perikles each juryman received three obols (about 5d.) a day for his services. The whole body of jurymen was divided into ten sections, each of which was distinguished by one of the first ten letters of the Greek alphabet (A to K). Each dikast received a ticket (miváklov), at first of bronze, but in Aristotle's day of boxwood, inscribed with his name, his parish, and the number of his section. In Aristotle's day the father's name was always given as well. Four of these dikasts' tickets
in bronze) are exhibited in this case, together with a fragment of a fifth. Upwards of eighty are known, all apparently belonging to the fourth century B.C. The tickets shown are :
No. 6, which belonged to Deinias of Halae, of the third section (r). The ticket is stamped with the Athenian symbol of an owl within an olive wreath, two owls with one head, and a Gorgoneion.
No. 7, belonging to Archilochos of Phaleron, of the fifth section (E).
No. 8, belonging to Aristophon, son of Aristodemos, of Kothokidae. His was the third section (C).
1 "Εδοξε τα άλία, πρόξενον είμεν Παυσανίαν Αττάλου Αμβρακιώτας | τας πόλιος των Κορκυραίων αυτών και εγγόνους | ειμεν δε αυτούς και τα άλλα Tipia, őga kai [tois] | Xous ne poté vous [kai] | evepyétais yéy(pa)|TTAL. | Tàv de προξενίαν προβούλους και προ δίκους γράψαντας εις | χάλκωμα αναθέμεν, τον δε ταμίαν δώμεν | το γενόμενον ανάλωμα.
Tavo uviav ’Attilov i 'Außpaciótuv. 2 ’AD. Io2. 63 : čxei d' EKUOTOS SIKUOTIS TT iviKLOV Tru&lvov, érriye ypaupévov tò όνομα το εαυτού πατρόθεν και του δήμου και γράμμα έν των στοιχείων μέχρι του κ.
No. 9, the ticket of Thukydides of Upper Lamptrae (fig. 3). He belonged to the sixth section (I). The ticket bears the symbols of an owl within an olive wreath, and a Gorgoneion.
The lowest fragment is part of a ticket belonging to Philochares of Acharnae of the fifth section.
Fig. 3. — TICKET OF THUKYDIDES (No. 9). L. 44 in. Ostracism.--This was a peculiar device adopted by Greek city-states for getting temporary relief from the influence of prominent citizens, whose presence was for the time being considered undesirable. At Athens ostracism was introduced by the great statesman Kleisthenes about 508 B.C. The method of effecting it was as follows. The popular assembly (Ekklesia) first decided whether they desired that ostracism should be carried out. If they considered it expedient, they met and recorded their vote. The name of the individual they most wished to get rid of was written on a potsherd (ostrakon), and if six thousand votes were recorded against any one name, that individual had to go into banishment for ten years. In Case 96 is a coloured illustration (No. 9*) of three ostraka found at Athens (fig. 4). The names written on the sherds are well known in Greek history. Themistokles, of the deme Phrearri, was the creator of Athenian sea
Fig. 4.--INSCRIBED POTSHERDS (OSTRAKA) AT ATHENS (No. 9*).
power. In consequence of this ostracism (ca. 471 B.c.) he died an exile at Magnesia on the Maeander. Megakles, of the deme Alopeke, son of Hippokrates and uncle of Perikles, was ostracised in 487 B.C. as “a friend of the tyrants.” In the next year, 486 B.C., was banished Xanthippos, son of Arriphron and father of Perikles, on the ground of undue prominence. Ostracism was not confined to Athens, but prevailed also at Argos, Miletos, and Megara. In