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called a secutor, who was armed like the Samnite, and perhaps received his name because he followed (Lat. sequi, “to follow '') his lightly-armed foe. (3) The Thrax (Thracian), armed with the Thracian curved dagger, a small shield, and a helmet. He fought the hoplomachus, another variety of Samnite. (4) The mirmillo, the origin of whose name and nature of whose equipment are not certainly known. He was opposed to the net-thrower, and later to the Thracian. Among other classes of less
Fig. 51.- POMPEIAN RELIEF, REPRESENTING COMBATS OF GLADIATORS.
FIG. 52.-COMBAT OF WOMEN GLADIATORS
(No. 142). Width 2 ft. 7 in.
importance may be mentioned the mounted gladiators (equites), who appear on the left of fig. 51 (a Pompeian relief). ?
A curious marble relief from Halikarnassos (No. 142 ; fig. 52) gives a vivid picture of an unusual form of gladiatorial combat, between two women. They are armed like the Samnites, but without helmets, and the fight seems to take place on a sort of platform, on either side of which the head of a spectator is visible. Their names are given as Amazon and Achillia, and above their heads is inscribed in Greek
1 Mus. Borb., XV., pl. 30.
“ discharged,” åtelungav. It is known that women fought in the arena under the Empire ? ; but under Septimius Severus (193–211) so much scandal was caused by a specially furious combat of a large number of female gladiators that such exhibitions were forbidden. They were certainly a most degraded form of an entertainment always inhuman and demoralising.
The objects exhibited in illustration of gladiatorial shows are numerous and varied, though not artistically remarkable. The subject was especially popular with the smaller craftsmen, the makers of bronze statuettes and the potters of Italy and Gaul, who produced terracotta lamps and vases for a large but uncritical
public. A selection of some half-dozen lamps (No. 142*) is here given, illustrating different stages of the combat, or single gladiators ; one is simply ornamented with specimens of gladiatorial armour (helmets, greaves, shields, and daggers).
No complete example of a gladiator's helmet is shown in the Case, but the
bronze visor (No. Fig. 53.-GLADIATOR'S HELMET.
143), a small bronze
model (No. 144), and a model in glazed pottery (No. 145) suffice to give an idea of the usual type. The illustration (fig. 53) of a helmet at Pompeii shows the arrangement of the visors. The various statuettes and reliefs do not add much to the description already given of the equipment of the different classes. The cast (No. 146) of a relief from Ephesus (the original is in the Sculpture Galleries) shows combats and corn-waggons, the panem et circenses demanded by the Roman populace.
Some interest attaches to the series of ivory tickets (tesserae), which are inscribed with the names of gladiators, and are valuable
as being dated by the names of the consuls in office at the time (No. 147). They range from the beginning of the first century B.c. to the time of Domitian (81-96 A.D.); those shown in the Case extend from 85 B.c. to 32 A.D. The usual formula of the inscription gives (1) the gladiator's name, (2) the name of his master, (3) the letters Sp and the date of the day and month, (4) the consuls of the year. The meaning of the letters sp is disputed, but the most likely explanation is that they stand for spectavit, " became a spectator,” with reference to the honourable discharge of the recipient. The ticket of which an illustration is given in fig. 54 bears the inscription, “ Cocero the gladiator
CI COCERO of Fafinius became a spectator on the 5th of October in the Consulship of
Coll FAFINI Lucius Cinna and Gnaeus Papirius” (85 B.C.).
The contests in the arena were not CISP.A.D.!! NOC limited to those between gladiators, and combats of men (bestiarii) with wild animals enjoyed equal popularity, roll.CIN. CNTA 1 as we know from the stories of the early Christians who suffered martyrdom in this manner. Such combats are not CHARGE TICKET. L. 14 in. infrequently depicted on the vases made in Gaul in the first and second centuries of our era, and there are two terracotta reliefs (Nos. 148, 149) shown in this case, of about the time of Augustus, which, though fragmentary, evidently relate to exhibitions of this kind. A better and more complete example is the sculptured relief from Ephesus (No. 150) with four panels, in each of which is a man in combat with a lion, probably successive stages in a single event.
(142) Cat. of Sculpt., II., 1117; (146) ibid., II , 1285; (150) ibid., II., 1286.
See also Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Gladiator.
IX.--ARMS AND ARMOUR.
(Wall-Cases 111-119, and Table-Case E.) The arms and armour of the ancients are contained in WallCases 111-119, and in Table-Case E. The arms of attack date from the beginning of the use of metal, in the prehistoric period,
down to the Roman Empire. The defensive armour, on the other hand, is, with the exception of the greaves from Enkomi, of the historical age.
Armour.-There is but scanty literary evidence of the armour of antiquity, but military subjects are common on the monuments, and these, with the actual remains of armour, afford material for an adequate idea of the ancient panoply. The armour of the pre-Hellenic civilisations of Greece, which can be traced in the Homeric poems, is the subject of considerable controversy, and as this collection possesses no specimen of such remnants as have been found, there is no need here to discuss the question. It is enough to remark that the armour of the inhabitants of Greece of the Bronze Age was entirely different from that of the Hellenic period, which began with the introduction of iron in the place of bronze, and that the heroes of the Homeric poems who are so frequently portrayed in classical art, are represented in the armour not of their own day, but of that of the artist. In the Geometric period, the interval between Mycenaean and Hellenic times, the armour which appears on the monuments is of mixed types ; but with the end of the period there emerges the true Greek fashion. This is well illustrated by one of the earliest paintings of the historical age, on a plate in the First Vase Room, from Kameiros in Rhodes (fig. 55). The scene is the combat of Hector and Menelaos over the body of Euphorbos. The heroes are fighting with long spears; they carry round shields on their left arms, and each wears a metal helmet, cuirass and greaves. These three pieces of body-armour were worn throughout classical times, and descended from the Greeks to the Romans. All are represented in this collection.
The earliest type of helmet is known as Corinthian. It was a complete metal casing of the head and neck, with holes for eyes and mouth; the nose was protected by the vertical strip which was left between the eyes, and the rest of the face was covered as by a mask (figs. 55, 63). In the earliest specimens the metal is everywhere of the same thickness, the cheek-pieces large and clumsy, the nose-piece straight, and little attempt is made to curve the back so as to fit the neck. Later helmets were more gracefully designed ; the nose- and cheek-pieces are shaped and curved, the neck has a natural contour, and is set off from the rest of the helmet by a notch on each side of the bottom rim. Then the crown is distinguished from the lower part, and the lines of hair and eyebrows are indicated in ridges and engraved patterns.
Nos. 151 and 152 have palmettes over the nose-pieces, and the latter a lotus design as well. Three of the later series (Nos. 153-155) are decorated with incised figures of boars and floral patterns.
It would seem that the Corinthian helmet was a cumbrous piece of armour. The ears of the wearer were covered, and the
large and shapeless shell must have sat loose upon the head, so as to be easily displaced by a sudden turn. This and the chafing of the metal were obviated in some degree by a lining of felt or leather, which was sewn inside the helmet in the rows of holes along the edges. A leathern cap was also worn, and is seen on the coins of Corinth (fig. 7e), where the helmet is represented