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in the position in which it was carried when the wearer was not fighting, i.e. pushed back from the face until the lower rim projected like a shade over the forehead. This position came to be adopted in battle also ; for in the last four of the Corinthian series (Nos. 153-156) there is not sufficient depth to the helmet to admit of its being worn over the face in the original way, nor are the eyeholes large enough to be of use, while in two examples they are represented only by engraving, a traditional design which shows the evolution of the helmet. These four are in fact a new type, which developed from the old Corinthian in its non-fighting position. Drawings of this helmet on Italian vases of the third century B.c. give a date for the class.
Crests were generally worn (figs. 55, 71), and the fastenings of these are preserved on several examples. One helmet is decorated in unusual fashion with a pair of horns, which may be a survival of the pre-Hellenic period or an imitation of contemporary barbarians (No. 157). This example comes from Apulia, and is probably of the fourth century B.C. The illustration of a similar helmet is from the figure of a horseman in a wall-painting at Capua (fig. 56).
An additional value is given to three of Fig. 56.-ITALIAN
the Corinthian series by inscriptions which HORNED HELMET, they bear and which help to date them.
The first (No. 158) is a record of a dedication of Corinthian spoils to Zeus by the Argives : TAPE[EI]OI ANEDEN TOI AIFI TON QOPINPO0EN, in lettering which belongs probably to the end of the sixth century B.C. The helmet was found in the bed of the river Alpheios, near Olympia, and was doubtless dedicated in the sanctuary. A shield bearing the first word of a similar inscription has since been found at Olympia, and was probably part of the same offering. Its occasion is unknown. Another helmet (No. 159) has five letters, OAVMI, scratched on the corner of one of the cheek-pieces in characters of about 500 B.C. The complete word was perhaps 'Olvutim, " To the Olympian Zeus.” This is said to bave been found at Dodona in Epeiros. The third is inscribed on the front with the name of its owner, “ Dasimos son of Pyrrhos” (No. 160). The date of the writing is the beginning of the fifth century. The helmet is
from South Italy. It is of peculiar shape, being provided with holes for the ears.
The style of these inscriptions, together with the evidence of vases and other monuments, tends to show that the Corinthian helmet was generally worn by the Greeks from the first appearance of metal armour in the eighth century B.C. to the early years of the fifth. It then became less common, but never quite disappeared, and it was used, certainly as a decorative type, by the Romans of the Empire.
The second class of Greek helmets is the so-called Attic. It appeared first in the sixth century B.C., and in the fourth was the usual type. In shape it is lighter than the Corinthian, and resembles a cap with appendages to protect the neck, cheeks and nose. The ear was thus left free. The cheek-pieces were made in elaborate shapes and were either fixed or hung on hinges. In the latter case they were pushed up from the face when the wearer was not in battle (figs. 58, 65). No. 161 is a cheek-piece from Loryma in Caria, which reproduces the form of the parts beneath it An Attic helmet from Ruvo in Apulia (No. 162) has fixed cheek-pieces
Fig. 57.-ATTIC HELMET in the shape of rams' heads, which were DECORATED WITH
Ram's HEADS ON THE completed with applied reliefs like those
CHEEK - PIECES. AT of a similar helmet at Naples (fig. 57). The nose-piece was often omitted. The forehead was well covered, and was usually marked by a triangular frontal band, often enclosing an ornament. No. 163 has the head of a young Satyr in repoussé. In No. 164 the lines of the frontal band end in volutes on the temples, and No. 162 (above mentioned) has also a band of relief in the pattern of a fringe of hair.
Crests were worn with the Attic helmet as with the Corinthian (fig. 85), but there was a peculiar type which often appears in art. It was especially famous from its representation on the great statue of Athena, by the sculptor Pheidias. The illustration is from a copy of the statue (fig. 58). In this three plumes were carried on elaborately modelled supports, often in the form of crouching animals, Sphinxes, lions, or Gryphons.
These two helmets, the Corinthian and the Attic, were so far the most general among the Greeks as to merit the name of the
classical types. The rest belong to smaller classes, and are for the most part of Italian origin. There is one, however, which may be Greek of about the fifth century B.C. (No. 165). It is in the shape of a Phrygian cap, with the addition of movable cheekpieces, of which the hinges are partially preserved. Such a helmet is often worn by Amazons, for instance by the Queen Hippolyte on an Athenian bowl of about 450 B.C., which is exhibited in the Third Vase Room (fig. 59).
Of the Italian helmets an important class, resembling a felt hat in shape, comes from Etruria. An early example of the type is a helmet which possesses greater historic interest than any
other (No. 166; fig. 60). It was found at Olympia in 1817, and was presented to the Museum by King George the Fourth. On the side is a votive inscription : 'Iópwv ó Allrouéveos kai toi Supakoto To Aì Topavoảm Kíuas “ Herom som of Demomenes and the Syracusans offer to Zeus Etruscan spoils from Kyme.” Hieron was tyrant of Syracuse from 478 to 467 B.C., in succession to his brother Gelon, and was one of the most prominent figures of the age. Gelon had nobly upheld the supremacy of the Greeks in the west by destroying a Carthaginian host at Himera, in the same year and, as the tale went, on the same day as the battle of Salamis. Hieron added to the brilliance of the Sicilian court, and signalised his naval power in the great repulse of the Etruscans from Italy. The ancient city of Kyme, near Naples, the earliest Greek colony in the west, was hard pressed by the neighbouring barbarians and by the civilised and powerful state of Etruria. The Greeks appealed for help to Hieron, and be sent them a fleet of warships, which beat the Etruscans in sight of the citadel of Kyme, and broke their sea-power for ever (474 B.C.). From the arms and treasure taken in the battle Hieron made the customary offering in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, and this helmet with its eloquent inscription was part of the dedicated spoil.
Another variety of conical helmet is shown in No. 167. It has
no brim, cheek-pieces, or nose-piece, but the remains of a large crest show how the plume was fixed in a semi-cylindrical support, which runs from a spike at the top of the helmet to the rim behind. These helmets are characteristic of Italy, and may be assigned to the same date as the early examples of the last class, from the sixth to the fourth century B.C. The type also appears in Gaul.
Next in order are placed the helmets usually called jockeycaps (No. 168; fig. 61). They are heavy metal caps with a knob on top and a peak to cover the neck, and have movable cheekpieces. They are found in Italy from about 500 B.C., and occur frequently in Etruscan tombs of the fourth and third centuries. The last type of Italian helmet is represented by two plain skullcaps (No. 169; fig. 62) which were found on the battlefield of Cannae (216 B.c.). They have incorrectly been called Carthaginian, from the place of their discovery, but the type is thoroughly European, and has been found in Italian tombs of the sixth century and at Hallstatt and other Central European sites. The distinguishing marks are two broad strips, derived from the bands which were used to strengthen felt caps, and two knobs on the sides which served the useful purpose of a pair of horns, to stop
glancing blows on the head. The marks of these bosses are visible on the helmets shown here.
The armour of the Romans is poorly represented, and of the helmets there is no example. A small trophy (No. 170) and the statuette of a legionary soldier (No.171; fig. 69) are all that can be shown. The reason of the scarcity of remains is that the Romans generally used iron for their helmets, which would thus perish by corrosion. In the earliest Roman army a Greek helmet was used,
but it is not minutely deFig. 61.-ITALIAN HELMET (No. 168). 1:5. scribed. It was probably
of the Attic type, which appears with the head of Roma on the earliest silver coins (fig. 10b-d), and persisted in a slightly modified form as the helmet of the Imperial legionary (figs. 69, 74). Existing specimens, though they vary in detail, are usually in the form of caps with a large peak to cover the neck, and a broad chin-strap. There are several examples in the Central Saloon of the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities.
The cuirass is, like the helmet, a piece of armour which in its metal form the Greeks were late to adopt. The earliest type consisted of two bronze plates roughly curved to fit the body and