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(Panopolis, the modern Akhmîm) was one of the chief seats of the linen industry, and to this day the dyed curtains of Akhmîm are used throughout Egypt. The craft of the jeweller was very important, for, in addition to the rings, bracelets, necklaces, pendants, earrings, etc., which he inade in gold and silver, he cut the amulets and ornaments in amethyst, garnet, agate, onyx, chalcedony, carnelian, jasper, mother-of-emerald, lapis-lazuli, turquoise, rock-crystal, basalt, porphyry, haematite, obsidian, coral, mother-of-pearl, etc. (See Table-cases F, J.). The finest work of the jeweller belongs to the XIIth dynasty, and the workmen of that period brought the art of inlaying precious stones and metals to a very high pitch of perfection. Some think that the Egyptians understood the art of enamelling, but authorities are not agreed on this point.

The glass-maker's craft is a very old one in Egypt, and it is probable that the Phoenicians borrowed it from that country.

Fine specimens of it in the British Museum are the turquoise - blue opaque glass jar of Thothmes III (Table-case H, No. 50, Third Egyptian Room), a blue glass bowl, and a variegated glass bowl from the tomb of Amen-hetep II (Nos. 57, 59, in the same case), and an opaque glass stibium pot with a gold rim (Wallcases 182-187, No. 29). The porcelain maker produced the little figures, amulets, bowls, vases, ushabtiu-figures, tiles, beads, pendants, etc., in the beautiful blue, green, purple, violet, and brown glazed ware to which the name Egyptian porcelain is usually given. An exceedingly fine collection of objects in this material is exhibited in Wall-cases Nos. 151156 in the Fourth Egyptian Room. The leather worker prepared parchments for writing materials, and made the harness for horses and trappings for chariots, soldiers' belts (Table-case B, No. 193), sheaths for daggers (No. 37), nets of fine meshes (Wall-case No. 187, Fourth Egyptian Room), seats for chairs (No. 5 Standard-case L, same room), bags in which barbers carried their razors, etc. (Wall-case No. 184, Fourth Egyptian Room.) Examples of the tools of the carpenter, blacksmith and coppersmith, stonemason, house-painter and decorator, etc., will be found in Table-case K and Wall-case 103 in the Third Egyptian Room.

Of the brickmaker's work specimens belonging to the reigns of Amen-hetep III, Thothmes I, Thothmes III, and Rameses II are exhibited in Wall-case 175, Fourth Egyptian Room. Examples of the craft of the furniture maker in the form of tables, chairs, stools, couches, toilet

boxes, altar-stands, etc., are seen in Standard-case L and Wall-case No. 190 in the Fourth Egyptian Room. The work of the ivory carver went hand in hand with that of the carpenter as regards the inlaying of chair frames, jewel-boxes, etc. (see Nos. 13 and 16 in Standard-case L). Specimens of the highest form of his skill are seen in the chair-legs, human figures, spoons, etc., in Table-case A in the Fourth Egyptian Room. The caster-in-metal produced the splendid series of figures of the gods in Wall-cases 119-132 and Table-case H in the Third Egyptian Room; fine examples are the silver figure of Amen-Rā (No. 42), gold figures of Thoth, Ptah and Rā (Nos. 21, 25, 26), and the gold figure of Osiris (No. 34). The wood-carver made the models of men, boats, animals, etc., which were placed in the tombs (see Wall-case Nos. 192, 193, Fourth Egyptian Room), and dolls and children's toys (see Standard-case C, Fourth Egyptian Room). The dyer produced the salmon-coloured linen coverings for mummies (sce Case L, First Egyptian Room), the brown mummy-swathings (see Wall-cases 93-96, Third Egyptian Room), and coloured wearing apparel (see Table-case E, Third Egyptian Room), etc.

The baker and confectioner found constant employment in every town and village in Egypt, for the Egyptians loved cakes made with honey, and fruit of all kinds, and bread and buns made into fanciful shapes. business was done in bread and pastry which were intended to serve as funerary offerings. Specimens of the bread and the stands on which the flat loaves were placed, will be found in Table-case H, Third Egyptian Room. The terracotta cones A which are exhibited in large numbers in Wallcases 110, 111, are supposed by some to represent the loaves, of a pyramidal shape, seen in the hands of kings and others who are represented offering to the gods. The barber also found constant employment, for many had their whole heads and bodies shaved every two or three days. He also dressed the hair of ladies on ceremonial occasions, and made wigs (see the fine example in Wall-case H, Third Egyptian Room). The barber often united to his trade the profession of physician, just as was the case in Europe in the Middle Ages. The craft of the boat-builder was very important in a country where a river was the chief highway. Flat-bottomed boats and punts used in fishing in the canals, or fowling on the marshes, were made of bundles of

A great

reeds, or papyrus, tied together, like the modern tóf in the Sûdân. Boats for carrying merchandize on the river were made of planks of wood pegged together, which were sometimes kept in position by being nailed on to ribs, and others were merely tied round with ropes made of papyrus. One of the earliest known pictures of an Egyptian boat is seen on vase No. 160, in Wall-case No. 5, on the landing of the NorthWest Staircase. Models of funeral boats, and barges and war boats are exhibited on the upper shelf of Wall-cases Nos. 99-110, in the Third Egyptian Room. The Egyptians were skilful boat builders, and they made rafts capable of carrying enormous blocks of stone, e.g., the obelisks which Queen Hātshepset set up at Karnak. They had equivalents of the modern broad ferry-boat, barge, lighter, etc., which they worked with oars or “sweeps" and sails, or towed, when going upstream, and when there was no wind.




Architecture.--The history of the earliest form of Egyptian architecture cannot be written because, with the exception of the ruined tombs of the Archaïc Period, all the remains of the earliest temples have been destroyed or have perished. The oldest form of the house was, no doubt, a hut built of reeds, the roof of which was supported by a pole, i.e., a tree trunk, or poles ; its shape was round or oblong. The cold winds of winter prompted the Egyptian to make the walls of his abode of Nile mud; this he mixed with water until it acquired the consistence of stiff paste, and then piled it up with his hands until the walls were as thick and high as he wanted them to be. All the walls inclined inwards, and so each helped to support the other; the roof was made of a layer of mud which rested on a number of pieces of palm trunks or small trees. The door probably faced the south, and an aperture, which served as a window, was cut high up in the north wall. (See the model of an early house, No. 174, NorthWest Staircase Larding.) Before the house was a small yard enclosed by thick walls made of mud, which inclined inwards, and a flight of solid mud steps led up to the roof. (See the models of early houses in Wall-cases Nos. 105-108 in the Third Egyptian Room.) Walls made of mud in this way are unsatisfactory, for they sag or bulge, and soon fall down. The invention of the brick marked a great improvement in the stability of buildings; and its use in the construction of houses, granaries, government buildings, forts, etc., became universal. A theory has been recently put forward that brickmaking was introduced into Egypt from Mesopotamia, but there is no reason why, in a land where all the soil is mud, which when well sun-dried becomes exceedingly hard, the idea of making bricks should not have been indigenous. Few things in the East last as long as a well-made brick, especially if it has been carefully baked; and buildings, even when made of crude bricks, last for several hundreds of ycars, unless they are destroyed by the hand of man. The invention of the brick permitted the Egyptians to build the elliptical arch,

which is frequently found in brick-built buildings; the knowledge of the arch is of ancient standing in Egypt. The early mud or brick house of the man of means was provided with a portico (the modern rakúbah), which was supported on palm trunks; this portico suggested the colonnade of later days, and the palm trunks the stone pillars with palm-leaf capitals.

The "house of the god," or temple, was at first built of mud, but what such a building was like is not known. Under the Ancient Empire the Egyptians built their temples of stone, and the oldest known example is that called the "Temple of the Sphinx” at Gîzah. It is built on a simple plan, and con


Pylon and court of the Temple of Edfů.

Ptolemaïc Period.

sists practically of a large hall, in the form T, containing 16 pillars, each about 16 feet high; the materials used were granite and limestone. It had neither formal door, nor windows, and such light as entered must have made its way in through oblique slits in the roof. It has no inscriptions, or bas-reliefs, or paintings, and even in its present state its massiveness, dignity, and solidity greatly impress the beholder.

Of the temples of the XIIth dynasty nothing is known, but of the New Empire several temples exist, and their general characteristics may be thus summarized. A broad path brought the worshipper to the gateway in the wall which

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