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himself “the eyes of the king in the South, and his ears in the North," "the eyes of the king in Thebes," etc. In the priesthood were the following grades: 1. The neter ḥen, or servant

, āb

" M or "precentor"

etc. There were several kinds of minor priests, e.g., the ḥen ka, or priest of the Ka, the sem, or setem, the ämm is, the ämm khent, and the ministrants general. The title of the high priest of Memphis

Ur-Kherp-ḥem," i.e., “ Great Chief of the hammer," in allusion to his being priest of Ptah, the Blacksmith-god of Memphis; that of the high priest of Heliopolis was "Ur-maau," i.e., "great seer”; and that of the high priest of Thebes was “Chief prophet of AmenRā.” Among the civilians the Scribes played the most prominent part in the administration of the Statues of Māḥu, a director of Works, and country, and in all periods Sebta, a priestess of Hathor, B.C. 1350. both “royal scribes” and (Central Saloon, No. 637.] "scribes" held many high offices, especially in connection with the Treasury, and with institutions which possessed large properties, such as the great temples of Heliopolis, Memphis, Saïs, Bubastis, Abydos and Thebes.

Military service.- The Egyptian was neither a fighting man nor a soldier by nature, and except for a few comparatively short periods in her history, Egypt never had an Army in the sense in which the word is used by Western Nations. The Egyptian hated military service, and in any conflict which resembled war he generally ran away. When a hostile force threatened the country, the head of each nome


collected a number of men from his district, and armed them as well as he could, and then sent his contingent to some place appointed by the king. Individual nobles also, no doubt, sent companies of men more or less armed from their estates to fight the king's battles. The peasant, or fellaḥ, was then, as now, a formidable opponent in a fight, when armed with a stout stick, or club, especially when he could fight under cover or behind a wall; but anything like organized resistance terrified him, and rendered him useless. On the other hand, the native of the Sûdân was a very fine fighter, and whenever it was possible Pharaoh stiffened his troops with regiments of Blacks. Thus, if we may believe the account of Una, the commander-in-chief of Pepi, a king of the VIth dynasty, his army contained Blacks from every great province of the Sûdân, and numbered “ many times ten thousand.” In the Asiatic campaigns, which produced such great spoil for Egypt, the organizers of these wars, which are better termed military raids," and the finest fighters in them were either Blacks, or of Sûdânî origin. Egypt had only need of soldiers in the strict sense of the word when it was necessary to suppress sudden rebellions in the provinces, or to compel tributary kings to pay what was due from them, or to provide escorts to Government trading expeditions. In times of peace the troops of the militia laid down their clubs, bows, daggers, and spears, and worked at their trades or cultivated the fields. Military exercises, drillings, manauvres, etc., there were none.

The Predynastic Egyptian warrior armed himself with a short, stout stick ; later it was weighted at one end with a piece of Aint or stone, and so became a kind of club. A flat piece of flint, or stone, with a roughly-formed cutting edge, bound to a stick by thongs of leather, served as an axe. Double-headed axes were also known, and knives, spearheads, arrow-heads, etc., were commonly used.

The equipment of the soldier of the Ancient Empire was simple. He wore a sort of skull cap, of leather (?), with a feather or two stuck in the top; he fought with a club or mace, and a bow bad, carrying his Aint-tipped arrows in a leather quiver slung over his back, and he caught the blows and arrows of his foe on a large leathern shield, which was sometimes ornamented with the badge of his master or his family. At a later period he wore a leathern shirt to protect his body, and he added to his arms a long spear, a knife, or dagger, with a curved blade +, and some.

times a battle-axe. The equipment of the mercenaries of a still later period differed in many details from that of the native Egyptian. (For examples of bows, arrows, daggers, spears, etc., see Table-case B in the Third Egyptian Room.)

The horse and chariot were unused in Egypt before the kings of the XVIIIth dynasty began to make conquests in Western Asia. At a comparatively early period the Egyptians began to fortify their towns with walls and strong gates, and in the XIIth dynasty King Usertsen III erected a series of forts in the Second Cataract to prevent the Nubians from descending the river and laying Egypt waste. One strong fort was built near Buhen (Wadi Halfah), another on the island now called Jazîrat al-Malik, one at Semnah, and another exactly opposite at Kummah. The walls were built of mud bricks, many feet thick, and long slopes cased with stone were built against them. Within each enclosure were series of chambers for storehouses and barracks, and at one corner a small temple, dedicated to the chief god of the district. Another series of forts was built on the frontier between the north-east line of the Delta and Syria, generally of great strength.

The geographical position of Egypt made it unnecessary for her to possess a navy, and, moreover, the peasants were as little fitted to become sailors as soldiers. The most important sea-fight in which the Egyptians took part was the engagement in which Rameses III (B.C. 1200, or later) vanquished the confederation of Libyan tribes. This king built war-ships, and manned them with crews from the seafaring peoples of the Mediterranean, and he succeeded in gaining a signal victory by sea and land over his enemies.




Predynastic Religion. From the evidence derived from a number of Predynastic graves it is perfectly clear that the Predynastic Egyptians believed in a future life ; for otherwise they never would have buried with the dead food and Aint weapons, etc., for the chase in the Other World. Whether they believed that the future life would be cternal cannot be said; but they certainly hoped that it would resemble the life on this earth.

Dynastic.—The religion of the ancient Egyptians was of African origin, and in the earliest times had much in common with that of many of the peoples and tribes who live in Equatorial Africa at the present day. Earth, air, sea and sky were believed to be filled with spirits, some of whom were occupied in carrying on the works of nature, and others in aiding or injuring man upon earth. Every object, both animate and inanimate, was inhabited by a spirit, which could assume any form it pleased, and cccupy the body of any man, woman, quadruped, bird, fish, insect, reptile, tree, etc. The incarnations of certain of these spirits became gods at a very early period, e.g., the hippopotamus, crocodile, lion, bull, ram, dog-headed ape, dog, wolf

, jackal, ichneumon, hawk, vulture, ibis, swallow, dove, and heron, certain kinds of snakes, uraeus, frog, beetle, grasshopper, mantis, and several kinds of fish. All the above were regarded as powers of good from the earliest to the latest times. On the other hand, certain animals, e.g., gazelle, the animal which is the symbol of Set,

or ty, the hyaena, the lynx, the scorpion, the turtle, were incarnations of powers of evil. The heavenly bodies were regarded as powers of good, probably, in the

See the flint hippopotami, crocodile, cow's head, fish, etc., in Tablecase M (Third Egyptian Room).

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earliest times; but the scorching heat of the sun, lightning, hurricanes, storms, flood, darkness, mist and fog were regarded as manifestations of spirits hostile to man.

In addition, the primitive Egyptians fashioned symbols of spirits, much in the


the native of Central Africa makes "fetishes." I All these they worshipped because they admired some quality or attribute in them, or because they feared them; and the religion of the earliest period consisted of the performance of rites and ceremonies which had for their object the propitiation of them. Men gave gifts to the incarnations of the spirits to persuade them to withhold the evils which they might inflict upon them, and to protect them from every calamity; moreover, they appealed to them as possessing the same feelings and passions as human beings. The dead were assumed to enjoy a renewed existence in the Other World, probably with benevolent spirits; it is quite certain that this belief was current among the primitive Egyptians, at least among those who lived during the latter half of the Neolithic Period. Every district and every large city or town had its own spirit or object of worship, and most of the gods of Egypt of the Dynastic Period were selected from them; often, no doubt, their names were changed, and their attributes added to.

At a very early period an attempt was made to group the gods into fainilies containing husband, wife, and son ; these are usually called triads, examples of which are: Amen-Rā, Mut and Khensu at Thebes ; Ba-neb-Tet, Hāt-mehit and Heru-pa-kharț at Mendes ; Ptah, Sekhet and l-em-hetep at Memphis. Another attempt to group the gods resulted in the Ennead or Company of nine or more gods.

Åmen-Rā. Åmsu Åmset. Anubis.

Å sår Å sår or

(Osiris). (Osiris), Menu. 1 The word “fetish ” is derived from the Portuguese feitiço, “a charm.”

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