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and garden produce of every description could not be obtained, the people had nothing to eat, and men were everywhere robbing their neighbours. Children wailed for food, young men had no strength to move, strong men collapsed for want of sustenance, and the aged lay in despair on the ground waiting for death. The king wrote to Matar, the Governor of the First Cataract, where the Nile was believed to rise, and asked him to enquire of Khnemu, the god of the Cataract, why such calamities were allowed to fall on the country. Subsequently the king visited Elephantine, and was received by Khnemu, the god of the Cataract, who told him that the Nile had failed to rise because the worship of the gods of the Cataract had been neglected. The king promised to dedicate offerings regularly to their temples in future, and, having kept his promise, the Nile rose and covered the land, and filled the country with prosperity.

Egyptian Geography.-From time immemorial Egypt has been divided into two parts, viz., the Land of the South, Ta-Resu, ®, and the Land of the North, Ta-Meht,

" Cool III o' The

The Land of the South is Upper Egypt, and its northern limit in modern times is Cairo; the Land of the North is Lower Egypt, i.e., the Delta, and its southern limit is Cairo. The ancient Egyptians divided the Land of the South into twenty-two parts, and the Land of the North into twenty parts; each such part was called Hesp

E, a word which the Greeks rendered by nome. Each nome was to all intents and purposes a little complete kingdom. It was governed by a heq, p, or chief man, and it contained a capital town in which was the seat of the god of the nome and the priesthood, and every heq administered his hesp as he pleased. The number of the nomes given by Greek and Roman writers varies between thirty-six and forty-four. In late times Egypt was divided into three parts, Upper, Central, and Lower Egypt; Central Egypt consisted of seven nomes, and was therefore called Heptanomis. The nomes were :

and every the nomes gived forty-four. Central, ar




God or Goddess. 1. Ta-Kens. Abu. ELEPHANTINE. Khnemu.

Aswân. 2. Tes-Heru. Țeb. APOLLINOPOLIS Heru-Behutet.

MAGNA. Edfú. 3. Ten. Nekheb. EILEITHYIAS- Nekhebit.

POLIS. Al-Káb. 4. Uast. Uast. THEBES(or HERMON- Amen-Rā.

THIS). Luxor, Karnak. 5. Herui. Kebti. COPTOS. Kuft. Ámsu, or

- Menu. 6. Aati.

Taenterert. TENTYRIS. Hathor.

Denderal. 7. Seshesh. Ha. DIOSPOLIS PARVA. Hau. Hathor. 8. Abt. Teni. THIS.

An-Her. 9. ..... Apu. PANOPOLIS. Ahkinim. Amsu or

Menu. 10. Uatchet. Țebu. APHRODITOPOLIS. Hathor. 11. Set.

Shas-hetep. HYPSELIS. Khnemu.

Shutb. 12. Țu-.... Nut-ent-båk. HIERAKON- Horus.

POLIS. 13. Am-f-khent. Saut. LYKOPOLIS. Asyût. Ap-uat. M. Åm-f-peh. Kesi. KUSAE. Al-Kusiyah. Hathor. 15. Unt.

Khemennu. HERMOPOLIS. Thoth.

Ashmûnên. 16. Maḥetch. Hebennu.

Horus. 17. Anpu (?). Kasa. KYNONPOLIS. Anubis.

Al-Kés. 18. Sept. Het-suten. Al-Hibah. Anubis. 19. Bu-tchamui. Pa-Mātchet. OXYR- Set.

RHYNCHUS. Bahnassa. 20. Am-Khent. Suten-henen. HERAKLE- Heru-shefit.


(The Hânês of the Bible.) 21. Ám-peh. Smen-Heru.

Khnemu. 22. Maten. Țep-Åḥet. APHRODITO- Hathor.

POLIS. Atfih. 1 Names printed in heavy type are Egyptian ; those in capitals are Greek, and those in italics are the names by which the places are known by the modern


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The Sûdân was divided into 13 nomes : 1. Peh-Qennes. The region south of Meroë. 2. Maruat. Meroë. Bagrawîr.

Amen. 3. Napt. Napata.





God or Goddess. 4. Peten-Heru. Pontyris.

Horus. 5. Pa-Nebset. Pnups.

Thoth. 6. Ta-Uatchet. Autoba (?). 7. Behent. Boôn. Wâdî Halfah. Horus. 8. Atefthit. Tasitia (?).

..... 9. Neháu.

Noa. 10. Meḥit. Meae.

Horus. II. Maamet. Ibrîm.

Horus. 12. Bekt. Bok. Kubbân.

Horus. 13. Het-Khent. P-ålek. Philae. Bilâk. Isis.

Under the Ptolemies, the district between Elephantine and Philae was called Dodekaschoinos, because it contained twelve schoinoi, or measures of land, but later this term was applied to the whole region between Elephantine and Hiera Sykaminos.

Under the late Roman emperors many of the nomes were subdivided, probably for convenience in levying taxes, and in still later times the governor of a nome, or province, bore the title of Duke (Aovš).

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The towns of Cairo, Alexandria, Port Sa'id, Suez, Damietta, etc., are generally governed each by a native ruler.

The provinces of the Sûdân are as follows:

1. Bahr al-Ghazal. 2. Berber. 3. Blue Nile Province. 4. Dongola. 5. Halfah. 6. Kassala. 7. Khartûm Province. 8. Kordofân. 9. Mongalla. 10. Red Sea Province. 11. Sennaar. 12. Upper Nile Province. 13. White Nile Province.

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