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Vignette and text of the Theban Book of the

.: Dead from the Papyrus of Ani. Brit. Mus., No. 10,470.) XVIIIth dynasty.

Vignette and text of the Theban Book of the

Dead from the Papyrus of Nu. (Brit. Mus., No. 10,477.] XVIIIth dynasty.

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Her-Heru, the first priest-king, and Queen Netchemet standing in the Hall of Osiris and praying to the god whilst the heart of the Queen

is being weighed in the Balance. [Southern Egyptian Gallery, No. 758.) Presented by His Majesty the King, 1903.

XX Ist dynasty, about B.C. 1050.

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of Mut-hetep, most valuable because it contains correct copies of early texts (No. 10,010).

Out of the Theban Recension grew another Recension, to which no special name has been given. It was written on papyrus both in hieroglyphics and hieratic, and its Chapters have no fixed order. It came into existence in the XXth dynasty, probably under the growing influence of

Ulkutan the priests of Amen. Fine 2 -24 ) examples of the papyri of this

zuuL 28 será Recension are the Papyrus of

149 YILJI Queen Netchemet (see Plate I), the wife of Her-Heru,

VIE!--39156 the first high priest-king of the 4e-29TIETIS XXIst dynasty (exhibited in the 41&gagijalne Southern Egyptian Gallery), and

SozinLF the Papyrusof Anhai, a priestess of Amen. In the latter an

5*9>syaalla entirely new style of decoration

Lâm –à Sở is employed, and gold is used en S75924 in decorating the disk of Rā

De áce Harmachis for the first time. KHAWAS Of the history of the Book

kina24 of the Dead between B.C. 1000

Tisu g9LUK and 650 little is known. Under the influence of the great renaissance, which took place in the

Co22:13 XXVIth dynasty, another Re 리스 cension came into use, called the zhoztoA Saïte. In this the chapters had 48=691324 a fixed order, many new ones

20 4 BY being inserted. The text was written both in hieroglyphics and hieratic, and it was decorated 22autelau with a series of vignettes, in which all the figures were drawn in black outline. The appearance Vignette and Chapter of the Book of papyri of this Recension is

of the Dead written in hieratic

| for Heru-em-heb. monotonous and dull, and both

[Brit. Mus., No. 10,257.) the drawings and the hiero

XXVIth dynasty, or later. i See Note 3 on page 59.

glyphics are stiff and spiritless. Good examples of papyri of this Recension are the Papyrus of Heru-em-heb, written in hieratic (No. 10,257), and the Papyrus of Heru, written in hieroglyphics (No. 10,479). The vignettes usually occupy small spaces at the top of the columns of text. The Recension in use in the Ptolemaïc Period was the Saïte, but before the Roman Period it was customary to write other and newer funerary works on papyri, and little by little the Book of the Dead, as a whole, became obsolete. It seems as if an attempt was made to extract from the old work the texts which were regarded as absolutely necessary for salvation, and as if the older mythology was unknown to the Egyptians of the period. It is quite certain that many of the scribes copied texts without understanding them, and that the meanings of many vignettes were lost.

About the beginning of the Ptolemaic Period the following works came into general use: 1. The SHĀIT EN SENSEN Dne Imm + $ . or Book of Breathings.

14 amm mm mm yi, or Book of Breathings. Like the great Book of the Dead, this work was declared to have been written by Thoth, the scribe of the gods, the “ Heart of Rā.” It contains a number of prayers for offerings, a series of declarations that the deceased has not committed certain specified sins, a statement that he has neither sin nor evil in him, and a demand that his soul be admitted into the heaven because “he gave food to the hungry, water to the thirsty, "clothes to the naked, and offerings to the Gods, and to the “KHU (beatified spirits).” A fine copy of this work is that written in the hieratic character for Kerasher on a papyrus in the British Museum (No. 9995). In the first part are copies of vignettes from the Book of the Dead, but the details are modified to suit the religious beliefs of the period. Thus Thoth and not Horus introduces the deceased to Osiris, and Anubis and Hathor lead him into the Judgment Hall instead of Maāt.

2. The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys, a work in which these goddesses lamented the sufferings and death of Osiris, and proclaimed his resurrection, and glorified him in the heavens. It was recited by two priestesses, who were ceremonially pure, on the 25th day of the month Choiak (December), and the words in the book were believed to be those which Isis and Nephthys actually said at their first mourning for their brother Osiris. Copies of them were written on papyrus and buried with the dead to ensure their resurrection and future happiness and glory,

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