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geese, to drive the sheep and goats to pasture or to the canal or river to drink, to look after the cows, to collect fuel for the fire, etc. It is unlikely that girls or women generally were taught to read and to write, but little is known about this matter. The boys of the professional and upper classes undoubtedly received a certain amount of instruction, for learning was highly esteemed throughout Egypt; but speaking generally, the learning of the country was in the hands of the scribes. The profession of the scribe was one of great dignity and importance, and the highest offices in the land were open to him. The temples and certain offices of the Government maintained schools in which scribes were trained, and pupils were, of course, promoted according to their proficiency and ability. In the temple-schools boys were trained to copy religious texts both in the hieroglyphic and hieratic characters, and they studied religious literature, exegesis, the legends of the gods, funerary texts, etc. In the schools of the Government Departments the teaching was devised to suit the requirements of the Treasury, the Public Granaries, the Crown Lands' Department, etc., and the pupils studied arithmetic, the keeping of accounts, geometry, mensuration, the writing of reports, etc. In all schools boys were taught to be clean, diligent, obedient, respectful and wellbehaved. Lessons began early in the morning and lasted till noon, when, as a papyrus in the British Museum says: "the “ pupils left the school with cries of joy.” The daily allowance of food for a boy was three bread-cakes and two jugs of beer, which were brought to the school-house by his mother every day. Corporal punishment was administered freely, and the back of the lazy boy who would not get up early, and that of the inattentive boy, received many stripes; in one case a very bad boy was locked up for three whole'months in a strong rooin in one of the temples.

School exercises were written on small whitewashed boards, slices of white limestone, and papyrus with a reed, and they usually consisted of extracts from ancient texts, religious or poetical, the contents of which were intended to improve the mind and form the morals and manners of the reader and copyist. (See Standard-case C in the Third Egyptian Room.) The education given in the colleges of the Priests was of a different character. There the young men studied magical and religious texts, several Books of the Dead, the doctrines of the cosmogony, and the histories and legends of the gods. They read the ancient writings with the priests whose duty it was to instruct them,

and learned by heart their expositions of the traditions accepted in the temples. One would expect the colleges to have possessed glossaries, or dictionaries, and grammars, but it is doubtful if they did, for nothing of the kind has hitherto been discovered. History in the modern sense of the word was unknown, though some of the great kings caused Annals of their reigns to be written ; and recent excavations have shown that even the King Lists which were drawn up under the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties are incomplete, and that

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Head of a seated figure of a priestess wearing a full-plaited

wig, bandlet, etc. [Wall-case 103, Third Egyptian Room.] XVIIIth dynasty. they contain the names of some kings wrongly spelt. Astronomy was studied with some success by the priests, and the maps of stars which were compiled by them were undoubtedly used for practical purposes in connexion with the agriculture of the country.

Dress and ornaments.—The garments worn by the Egyptians were made of linen, for wool was regarded as


Painted relies with scenes representing dancing, the slaughter of cattle,

preparations for a feast, etc. From the tomb of Ur-ari-en-Ptah. (Assyrian Basement, No. 80.]

VIth dynasty

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