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covered with inscribed slabs of smooth limestone or polished granite, and it is calculated that it at present contains 85,000,000 cubic feet of masonry. The illustration on page 197 illustrates the general arrangement of the chambers and corridors inside the pyramid, and the corridor and mummy chamber beneath it. The stone used in building was quarried at Tura, on the eastern bank of the Nile, about 8 or 9 miles from the pyramid site. It was rolled down to the river on a made road, and ferried across in barges, and then rolled up the embanked road and causeway to the rock. According to Diodorus (i, 63), the building occupied at least twenty years, and some 300,000 men were employed in the work. Herodotus says (ii, 64) that ten years were consumed in the quarrying of the stone, and ten more in building, and that the men worked in gangs of ten thousand, each gang working three months at a time. A group of three casing stones from the Great Pyramid are exhibited in the Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 10-12, and also a plaster cast of a statue of Khufu (No. 13). Attached to the Great Pyramid was a funerary temple in which commemorative services were performed; and either towards the end of the king's reign, or soon after his death, one of the chief priests in it was Ka-tep, who held the office of “ Prefect of the sa" + ofeffo, i.e., of the “fluid of life.” Ka-tep was a “royal kinsman,” and his wife Hetepheres was a “royal kinswoman.” For the statues of Ka-tep and his wife, see page 177, and for “false doors” from his mastaba tomb, see Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 14-17, and for his censers, see Wall-case 200 in the Fourth Egyptian Room, Nos, 52, 53. Another official who flourished about this period was Sheshå, from whose tomb came the limestone stele in the Egyptian Vestibule, No. 18.
During the reign of Khufu a large number of fine tombs were built round about the Great Pyramid, and in some of them fine monolithic sarcophagi were placed. An excellent idea of this class of monument may be gained from an examination of the cast of the sarcophagus of Khufu-ānkh (Egyptian Vestibule, No. 19).
Here, because the monument is associated with the name of Khusu in the inscription of Thothmes IV, must be mentioned the Sphinx, in Egyptian Hu 8 1 428. The early history of this wonderful man-headed lion is unknown, but it seems that some work upon the rock out of which it was fashioned was undertaken by Khufu. Under the XIIth dynasty the
long taon which connect under the
headdress, called nemmes, was cut, and it is possible that an attempt was made to give the face some resemblance to that of Amen-em-hāt III, or one of his predecessors, about the same time. At a later period the Sphinx was identified with RāHarmachis, probably under the influence of an ancient tradition which connected it with the Sun-god. It is 150 feet long and 70 feet high; the head is 30 feet long and the
face 14 feet wide. Originally the face was painted a bright red, and traces of the colour are still visible. Traditions and superstitions have gathered about it in all ages, and it is probable that the rock out of which it was made was regarded with veneration in primitive times. In the Middle Ages the natives believed that the Sphinx kept the sands of the Western Desert from swallowing up the village of Gîzah. A portion of the painted limestone uraeus, or asp, from the forehead and a portion of the beard of the Sphinx are exhibited in the Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 20 and 21.
Khufu was succeeded by Tet-f-Rā, of whom nothing is known; and he again was succeeded by Khā-f-Rā, the Chephren
of the Greek writers, who King Khăfră (Chephren).
is famous chiefly as the
builder of the Second Pyramid at Gizah, called in Egyptian “ Ur” TA, i.e., the “Great." Its height is about 450 feet, the length of each side at the base is 700 feet, and it is said to contain about 60,000,000 cubic feet of masonry, weighing some 4,883,000 tons. It was first opened by Belzoni (born 1778,
died 1823) in 1816. It was originally cased with polished stone, but only towards the top has the casing been preserved. The illustration on page 171 shows the arrangement of the corridor and sarcophagus chamber, which is very different from that of the Great Pyramid. A funerary chapel was attached to the pyramid ; and among those who ministered in it was Rutchek, the chief of the libationer priests, who
calls himself a “friend of
] Pharaoh " nem (For an architrave and an inscription from his tomb see Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 22 and 23.) The Pyramid itself was in charge of the “ royal kinsman" Thethå, who was the royal steward, and “over“seer of the throne of “Pharaoh," and priest of Hathor and Neith. Two fine doors from the mastaba tomb of Thethà are exhibited in the Northern Egyptian Gallery (Bay 1, Nos. 24 and 25), together with a short inscription referring to the burial of his father and mother (No. 26). The perfection to which the sculptor's art had attained at this period is well illustrated
by the casts of statues King Menkaurā (Mykerinos).
of Chephren, from the [Vestibule, South Wall, No. 30.]
hard stone originals in
the Museum in Cairo, exhibited in the Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 27 and 28. A fragment of an alabaster vessel from the king's tomb, bearing his name, is in Wall-case 138 in the Fourth Egyptian Room, No. 56.
Men-kau-Rā, the Mykerinos of Greek writers, reigned, it is said, about sixty-three years; no details of his reign are
known, and he is chiefly famous as the builder of the Third Pyramid at Gîzah, which the Egyptians called “Her”
A. This pyramid is between 210 and 215 feet high, and the length of each side at the base is about 350 feet. The illustration on page 202 shows the position of the corridors and the mummy chamber, which is 60 feet below the surface of the ground, and also indicates the damage which was done to the pyramid by the Khalifa Al-Mâmûn, who, believing that it was full of gold and precious stones, tried to demolish it. The pyramid was originally cased with slabs of granite, many of which still remain in position. In the mummy chamber were discovered a stone sarcophagus, a wooden coffin, the cover of which was inscribed with the king's names and titles and an extract from a religious text, and the remains of a mummy wrapped in a cloth. These were despatched by ship to England in 1838, but the ship was wrecked, and the sarcophagus was lost; the fragments of the coffin and the mummy were recovered, and are now exhibited in Case B in the First Egyptian Room. In the reign of Men-kau-Rā certain Chapters of the Book of the Dead were revised or composed by Heruțātāj, a son of Khufu, or Cheops, who was renowned for his learning. A cast of a statue of Men-kau-Rā, and a sepulchral stele of Khennu, a “royal kinsman” and councillor of the king, are exhibited in the Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 30 and 31.
In the reign of Men-kau-Rā was born a child to whom the name of Ptah-Shepses was given, and who was a playfellow of the princes and princesses in the palace. In the reign of the next king, Shepseskaf, he married the royal princess Maāt-khā 2 2 , and lived on through the
ma' reigns of Userkaf, Sahu-Rā, Nefer-åri-ka-Rā, and two or three other kings of the Vth dynasty. Under each king he filled a number of important offices, and at his death was probably considerably more than 100 years old. He was buried in a fine large mastaba tomb at Sakkârah, from which the great door in the Egyptian Vestibule, No. 32, was taken. The façade is inscribed in fine bold hieroglyphics, and the sculptured decorations on the sides are good examples of the best funerary reliefs of the period. The upper parts of each of the main perpendicular lines of text contained the name of a king, but of these only two now remain.