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of whom was Sutekh 7 ° , and him they identified with Set N, or Suti 18 N, the old Egyptian

god of darkness and evil.

According to Josephus the chief kings of the Hyksos were : Salatis, who reigned at Memphis, and fortified the city of Avaris, near Tanis, and garrisoned it with 250,000 men; he reigned 13 years. He was succeeded by Beon, who reigned 44 years, and Apachnas, who reigned 36 years and 7 months, and Apophis, who reigned 61 years, and Jonias who reigned 50 years and 1 month, and Assis, who


Granite lion inscribed with the name of Khian, a Hyksos king, about B.C. 1800. [Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 5, No. 340.] reigned 49 years and 2 months. Of the objects in the British Museum which belong to the Hyksos Period may be mentioned : 1. The famous Mathematical Papyrus (No. 10,058), which was written in the reign of Aa-user-Rā (ovatn), or Apepå I; 2. A red granite slab from the temple of Bubastis, inscribed with the name of Apepå

Bay 23, No. 339); 3. A scarab inscribed Aa-peh, the prenomen of Nubti, a king whose cartouches appear on the famous Stele of 400 years 1 (No. 32,368); 4. The granite

It was discovered at Şân (Tanis) by Mariette, who had the inscription copied; the stele was then carefully buried, and it has not since been seen.

lion (Bay 5, No. 340) on the breast of which is cut the cartouche

Suser-en-, i.e., the prenomen of King Khian ( 171 mm. This lion was purchased at Baghdad, but its provenance is unknown. Besides these the British Museum possesses a large number of scarabs of the Hyksos Period inscribed with the names of kings and royal personages.

Another Hyksos king, Aa-qenen-Rā Apepå II, is made known to us by Sallier Papyrus II (No. 10,185), which shows that he was a contemporary of one of the Theban kings called Seqenen-Rā. According to this document there was enmity between Apepa II and Seqenen-Rā, his vassal, but as the papyrus is mutilated the result of their enmity is unknown.

During one portion of the Hyksos Period a group of petty kings, or chiefs, each of whom was called Antef-āa, ruled either at Thebes or Coptos, and a few of their monuments have come down to us. In the British Museum are: 1. Stone memorial pyramid of Antef-āa Ap-Maāt (Vestibule, South wall, No. 341); 2. Slab sculptured with a figure of Antef Nub-kheper-Rā (Bay 4, No. 342); 3. Gilded coffin of Antef-āa (Wall-case 2, First Egyptian Room).

It has been said above that there was enmity between Apepå II and Seqenen-Rā, but the monuments prove that there were three kings who bore the Seqenen-Rā prenomen, and it seems that all three waged war against the Hyksos in the north; their full names were Seqenen-Rā (I), Tau-āa, Seqenen-Rā (II), Tau-āa-āa, Seqenen-Rā (III), Tau-āa-gen. The greatest warrior of the three was undoubtedly the last named, and it was he who determined to throw off the yoke of the foreigner. He was supported by all classes of Egyptians, for the Hyksos were hated, and especially by the priests of Amen-Rā at Thebes, who regarded the demand of the Hyksos king that Seqenen-Rā III should worship the god Sutekh as a grave insult to their god Amen-Rā. SeqenenRā III refused to worship Sutekh, and proclaimed his independence. Of the battles which were fought during the war that followed nothing is known, but it is clear that in one of them the brave leader in the struggle for national independence was slain. When his mummy was unrolled at Cairo, in 1886, it was seen that the lower jaw-bone was broken and the skull split; there were also large wounds in the side of the head and over the eye, and one ear had been hacked away. Tau-āa-qen was succeeded by his son (?) Ka-mes, whose reign was, however, short. To him belonged the fine bronze axe-head inscribed with his names and titles exhibited in Table-case B in the Third Egyptian Room (No. 5), and the spear head, similarly inscribed, of which see a cast in the same ca-e (No. 191). Ka-mes had several children by his wife Àāh-hetep, and some of their sons may have ruled for a short time; but the country was very unsettled, and the first to succeed in restoring law and order was Aāhmes, or Amāsis I, the founder of the XVIIIth dynasty.




The Eighteenth Dynasty. From Thebes.

About B.C. 1600.

Under this dynasty Egypt formed her empire in Western Asia, and conquered and occupied the Egyptian Sûdân, probably so far south as the Bahr al-Ghazal. The Hyksos were expelled from Egypt by the first kings of the dynasty, and the peoples in the Eastern and Western Deserts were held in check with a firm hand. King after king made frequent raids on a large scale into Syria and the Sûdân, and on each occasion brought back untold spoils, a considerable proportion of which was expended on the building of great temples like those of Karnak, Luxor, and Dêr al-Baharî. Trade developed to an unprecedented extent, and riches increased; and the king and his priests and nobles were able to gratify their love of splendid temples, colossal statues, lofty obelisks, large palaces, fine houses and gardens, decorated furniture, elaborate jewellery, costly tombs, etc. Under the patronage of the priesthood and the temple-schools education prospered, literature, art, painting and sculpture flourished, and the vast works which were undertaken by the Government encouraged handicraftsmen of every kind in the production of the best work. Among the kings of this dynasty were the greatest and most powerful sovereigns that ever ruled Egypt, viz., Thothmes III and Amen-hetep III. The first king of the dynasty was Àāḥmes, or Amāsis I,

en who carried on the war against the Hyksos

V. which Seqenen-Rā had begun. He captured the city of Avaris, the stronghold of the Hyksos, and turned the enemy out of the country, and in the fifth year of his reign he captured the city of Sharuhen (mentioned in Joshua xix, 6), in Syria. He subsequently invaded Nubia and compelled the tribes to pay tribute. Among the monuments of his reign are the massive granite altar inscribed with his name (Bay 16, No. 343); the head of a seated


figure of Nefert-åri, his wife (Bay 12, No. 344); the ushabti figure of the king (Wall-case 84, Second Egyptian Room, No. 129); and the portrait of the Queen (Case I, Third Egyptian Room, No. 3).

Amen-ḥetep I, the son of Amāsis I, continued the war in Nubia, and the rebuilding of the temple of Amen and other sanctuaries; he was the founder of the great brotherhood of the Priests of Amen. From a building made by him at Dêr al-Baharî came the magnificent painted limestone statue of the king, in the mummied form and with the White Crown of Osiris, exhibited in the Northern Egyptian Gallery (No. 346), and the stele on which are sculptured figures of Neb-HaptRā Menthu-ḥetep and Amenhetep I (Bay 9, No. 347). Other interesting monuments of this reign are: the stele of Pa-sheț, a judge, who is seen adoring the king and queen (Bay 7, No. 348); and a stele with figures of the king and queen (Bay 9, No. 349). The inscriptions and scenes on several stelae show that Amen-hetep I and his queens were included among the gods ; see the stelae of Hui (Bay 8, No. 352), Pa-ren-nefer (Bay 8, No. 353), Amen-em-åpt (Bay 10, No. 354), Amen-men (Bay 10, No. 355), and Hui, son of Nefert-ithả (Bay II, No. 357). Tehuti-mes I, or Thothmes I, B.C. 1550.

the son of Amen

V. ḥetep I, made Napata, at the foot of the Fourth Cataract, the border of his kingdom to the south; and he waged war in Northern Syria. He added to the temple of

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Statue of Amen-ḥetep I, B.C. 1600, in the form of Osiris, wearing the Crown

of the South. [Northern Egyptian Gallery,

Bay 3, No. 346.)

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