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The statues of Amen-hetep III, B.C. 1450, commonly known as “The Colossi.” The statue on the right is the famous
“ Colossus of Memnon," from which a sound was said to issue at dawn.
of Àmen-Rā at Thebes (Bay 10, No. 424); stele of Apni, a master of transport (Bay 11, No. 425); painted statue of Pa-ser, an Erpā, from Dêr al-Bahari (Bay 13, No. 427); granite statue of Amen-ḥetep, an Erpā, from Bubastis (Bay 12, No. 428), etc. Of special interest are the two fine red granite lions, which were found in the ruins of a temple at Gebel Barkal, at the foot of the Fourth Cataract. No. 430 dates from the reign of Amen-ḥetep III, and appears to have been made by him for the temple of Sulb; No. 431 was, according to the inscription, made by Tut-ankh-Amen, a later king of the XVIIIth dynasty, who “repaired the monuments of his father Amen-hetep” (see Plate XXXVI). The name of a late Nubian king, Amen-Asru, is found on each lion, and it is
Scarab of Amen-ḥetep III, recording
the names of the parents of Queen Thi. [No. 29,437.]
Scarab of Åmen-ḥetep III, recording
the slaughter of 102 lions by the king in the first ten years of his reign. [No. 12,520.]
possible that he may have brought both lions to Napata from Sulb, and placed them in his own temple. Stelae Nos. 432 (Bay 10 and 433 (Bay 9) are of a most unusual character. No. 432 is a late (Ptolemaïc) copy, written in hieratic, of the deed of endowment of the funerary chapel of Amenḥetep, the son of Hāp, the famous architect who built the
Colossi, dated in the thirty-first year of the reign of Amenhetep III. No. 433 is inscribed with a series of addresses which can be read both perpendicularly and horizontally. Among smaller objects inscribed with the names of Amenhetep III and Queen Thi may be noted the bronze menát amulet, stamp, vase, brick, stibium pot, plaque, scarabs, etc., which are exhibited in the Third and Fourth Egyptian Rooms.
Of the greatest importance for the history of this reign are the Tell al-Amarna Tablets, a fine collection of which is exhibited in Table-case F in the Babylonian Room. They consist of a series of letters and despatches, etc., written chiefly to Amen-hetep III and his son Amen-hetep IV, by kings and governors of countries, provinces, and towns in Western Asia. Nearly all are written in a Semitic dialect, and in the cuneiform character. They were found in a chamber to the east of the palace of Amen-hetep IV, in the city of Khut-Aten, near the modern Tell al-Amarna. Among the royal letters in the British Museum
Draft of a letter from Amen-ḥetep III to Kadashman-Bêl, king of Karaduniyash (No. 29,784); a letter from Kadashman-Bêl to Åmen-ḥetep III (No. 29,787); letters from Tushratta, king of Mitani, to Amen-ḥetep III (Nos. 29,792, 29,791); letter from Burraburiyash to Amen-hetep IV (No. 29,785); letter from Tushratta to Thi, queen of Egypt (No. 29,794); etc.? (see Plates XXXIV, XXXV). Amen-ḥetep IV was the son of Amen-hetep III and Queen
Thi, and reigned about 20 years. In his
youth he became a warm devotee of the god Åten, whose visible symbol was the solar disc, and rejected the cult of Amen, or Amen-Rā, the king of the gods. During the first few years of his reign he lived at Thebes, and built there a Benben
Benben J j -, or shrine, dedicated to Harmachis; and it seems that this was regarded by the priests with disfavour. The pretensions of the priests of Amen were unbearable to him, and he therefore decided to leave Thebes and build a royal capital elsewhere. The site chosen by him
? Full descriptions of all the tablets have been published by the Trustees of the British Museum, with summaries of the contenis and the texis in The Tell alAmarna Tablets in the British Museum, Autotype plates, 1892, 8vo. Price 28s.; and see the Guide to the Babylonian and Assyrian Collections, Second Edition, 1908, pp. 177-192.