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(Bay 8, No. 455); stele of Nefer-renpit, sculptured with a scene representing the ceremony of Opening the Mouth (Bay 8, No. 456); stele of Tehutimes, captain of the guard of the city gate of Memphis (Bay 8, No.460); stele of Heru-em-heb a high official, and two door-jambs inscribed with a hymn to the Sungod (Bay 8, Nos. 461-463); stele of Neb-Rā, on which are sculptured four eyes and two ears
sao No. 467); stele of Ban-āa, a royal scribe (Bay 9, No. 474); stele of Heru and Sutui, twin brothers, architects and clerks of the works at Thebes early in the XVIIIth dynasty (Bay 9, No. 475); stele of Pasheţ inscribed with praises of the Syrian god Reshpu (Bay 10, No. 478); stele of Qaḥa (Bay 10, No. 483); stele of Māḥu, captain of the king's bow (Bay 10, No. 487); stele of Anna (Bay 11, No. 503) ; stele of Sebekþetep, scribe of the wine-cellar (Bay 12, No. 513); sepulchral monument of Thuthu, with pyramidal top and libation basin attached (Bay 13, No. 549); granite figure of Qen-nefer, a high court official (Central Saloon, No. 556); three small inscribed pyramids (Bay 18, Nos. 558-560); painted shrine of Ani, a gardener (Bay 18, No. 561), etc. To the period of the XVIIIth dynasty may probably be attributed the seated statues of a priest, or high administrative official, and his wife in Bay 18, No. 565 (see Plate XXXVII). This monument is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful examples of Egyptian sculpture in the British Museum. Here, too, must be noted a very rare object, viz., a complete wooden door, from the tomb of Khensu-hetep at Thebes, on which is cut a scene representing the deceased making offerings to Osiris-KhentiÅmenti, in the presence of Hathor, lady of Amentet (Vestibule, North Wall, No. 566).
To the pericshrine of
in Bays of a priest, or may probably the
Nineteenth Dynasty. From Thebes.
About B.C. 1370.
Rameses I, the first king of this dynasty, appears to have ascended the throne when he was an elderly man. He made an attempt to enter into friendly relations with Sapalul, the chief of the Kheta, or Hittites; and he seems to have raided the Sâdân. Monuments of his reign are few (see the scarabs inscribed with his name in Table-case D in the Fourth Egyptian Room).
but did nith religious are among famous
The early years of the reign of Seti I, the son and successor of Rameses I, were spent in fighting. He attacked the Shasu, or nomad tribes of the Eastern Desert and of Palestine and Syria, and defeated them with great slaughter, and advanced to the city of Kadesh, on the Orontes, and conquered it. He returned to Egypt laden with spoil, including cedar wood from Lebanon for making a new barge for Amen-Rā at Thebes. He made raids in the Sûdân, and forced the natives to assist him in reworking the old gold mines and opening up new ones. He reopened the copper mines in Sinai, and all the large quarries, for he needed much stone for his buildings. He began to build a great temple at Abydos, but did not live to finish it: the walls and pillars are ornamented with religious scenes and figures of the gods, and the sculptures and reliefs are among the most beautiful of Egypt. In one of the corridors is the famous King List, or Tablet of Abydos, which contains the names of 76 kings, the first name being that of Mená or Menes. At Karnak he added 79 columns to the Hall of Columns (see Plate XXX); at Kûrnah (Thebes) he finished the temple begun by his father Rameses I ; and he built a splendid tomb in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings (see page 174). From this tomb came his inagnificent alabaster sarcophagus which is now preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields. Seti I built a temple at Dulgo, near the Third Cataract, probably in connexion with the gold trade carried on by the government; he opened up roads to the gold deposits in the Wâdî Ulâķî, in the Eastern Desert; and he built a temple at Radassîyah on the old caravan road which ran from Edû to the emerald mines of Gebel Zâbarâ, near Berenice, on the Red Sea; and dug wells at many places in the desert. His reign was comparatively short, 10 or 15 years at most, and he was succeeded by his second son Rameses II, whom he had made co-regent. Among the monuments of his reign are: Large wooden Ka-figure of Seti I, found in a chamber in his tomb (Central Saloon, No. 567); three painted slabs from the tomb of Seti I (Central Saloon, Nos. 568-570); and a grey granite clamp from a wall in Seti's temple at Abydos, inscribed with his prenomen (o many (Bay 18, No. 572). Among smaller objects may be noted the scarabs, glazed vase, and ushabtiu figures of the king exhibited in the Second and Fourth Egyptian Rooms (Wall-cases 78, 79, 150 and 152). A stele set up by him at Wâdî Halfah in the first year of his reign is in Bay 13 (No. 574), and the stele of Rumā, a scribe and priest in his temple at Abydos, is in Bay 11 (No. 573). The beautifully illustrated Papyrus of Hunefer was written in this reign (No. 9901).
Ramessu, or Rameses II, the Sesostris of the Greek writers, the son of Seti I, was associated with his father in the
rule of the kingdom at an early age ; he was probably between 20 and 30 years old when he became sole king of Egypt. He reigned 67 years, and died aged about 100 years. He married many wives, among them being some of his own near relatives, and was the father of about i sons and 51 daughters. During the first two or three years of his reign he made war on the tribes of the Sûdân, and his victories over them were commemorated by the rockhewn temple at Bêt al-Walî, near Kalâbshah. Reproductions in plaster of the scenes of the paying of tribute to him are exhibited on the North and South walls of the Fourth Egyptian Room. In the fourth year of his reign Rameses
was fighting in Syria, Kneeling stalue of Rameses II holding a and so began the series tablet for offering.
of battles with the Kheta [Southern Egyptian Gallery,
Bay 17, No. 584.]
and their allies which
lasted for fiteen or sixteen years. In the end neither side was victorious, and finally Rameses was obliged to make a trealy with the prince of the Kheta, in which it was agreed that Egypt was not to invade Kheta territory, and that the Kheta were not to invade
Egypt. The Kheta admitted the sovereignty of Rameses over all territory south of the Nahr al-Kalb, or Dog River, near Bêrût, in Syria, and the region north of it was to be Kheta territory for ever. The most important among the long series of battles was the Egyptian attack on Kadesh, on the Orontes; it was temporarily successful, but it cost Rameses dear. During the struggle, Rameses had charged among the enemy far ahead of his troops, who had either been killed or had run away. When the king realized his position, he found that he was surrounded by the foe, and was in the greatest danger of being slain. Undaunted, however, he girded on his armour, and in the strength of the gods Menthu and Bāl (Baal, he turned on his foes, and cut his way through them, slaying large numbers as he escaped from their midst. “I was,” said the king, "by myself, for my soldiers and my horse“men had forsaken me, and not one of them was bold " enough to come to my aid." This episode was treated in a highly poetical manner in a composition generally known as the Poem of Pentaurt. As a matter of fact Pentaurt was not the author, but inerely the scribe who made the fullest copy of the work known, namely, that in the British Museum Papyrus, Sallier III. Thirteen years after the conclusion of the treaty with the Kheta, i.e., in the thirtyfourth year of his reign, Rameses II married the daughter of the prince of the Kheta, whose Egyptian name was Maā-Rāur-neferu.
Rameses was a great builder ; his name is found everywhere on monuments and buildings in Egypt, and he frequently usurped the works of his predecessors and inscribed his own name on statues, etc., which he did not make. The smallest repair of a sanciuary was sufficient excuse for him to have his name inscribed on pillars, architraves, doorjambs, and every prominent part of the building. His greatest works were: I. The rock-hewn temple of AbûSimbel, dedicated to Amen, Rā-Harniachis and Ptah (see Plate XXXVIII); its length is 185 feet, its height go feet, and the four colossal statues of the king in front of it are each 60 feet high. In the large hall are eight square pillars, each 30 feet high, cach with a colossal figure of Osiris, 17 feet high, standing against it. 2. The rock-hewn temple of Bêt al-Wali at Kalâbshah. 3. The Ramesseum at Thebes, called by Diodorus the “Tomb of Osymandyas,” and by Strabo the “Memnonium.” The granite statue of the king Front of the rock-hewn temple built at Abû Simbel by Rameses II, B.C. 1330, to commemorate his victory