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The Sky-goddess Nut. From the inside of the sarcophagus of
Queen Ankhnes-neferáb-Rā. [Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 24, No. 811.)
Kneeling statue of Uah-ab-Rā, a prince, governor, and
commander-in-chief, about B.C. 600. (Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 21, No. 818.]
XLIII, XLIV). The reliefs and figures are carefully executed, and the hieroglyphics are well cut. In the Ptolemaïc Period this sarcophagus was used for a royal scribe named Amenþetep, or Pi-Menth, his name being inserted in the cartouches and the feminine suffixes being changed to masculine. Ankhnes-neferáb-Rā built a chapel at Thebes, from which came slabs Nos. 812, 813 (Bay 24). Worthy of note also
two fine bronze figures of Harpokrates-Amen and Menu, which were dedicated to Queen Ankhnes-neferáb-Rā by priests in her temple (see Table-case H, Third Egyptian Room). Amāsis I had a daughter, Ta-Khart-Åst (for a portion of a statue of her see Bay 24, No. 814).
The last king of this dynasty was Psammetichus III. During his short reign, which lasted six months only, the Persians under their king Cambyses invaded Egypt, and, having defeated the Egyptians at Pelusium, marched on to Memphis and captured it. After a short time Cambyses put Psammetichus to death, and Egypt became a province, or satrapy, of Persia.
During the rule of the XXVIth dynasty over Egypt, it appears that several native Nubian kings ruled the Northern Sûdân from Napata, the modern Gebel Barkal. Among these were Aspelta and Heru-sa-åtef, the former of whom probably reigned about B.C. 625 and the latter about B.C. 580. For casts of stelae recording the Coronation of Aspelta and the Annals of Heru-sa-åtef, see Bay 18, No. 815, and Bay 20, No. 816. A cast of a stele inscribed with an edict against the eaters of raw meat is in Bay 20, No. 817.
Under the XXVIth dynasty a great revival of art and learning took place, due partly to the settled condition of the country under a firm government, and partly to the material prosperity which obtained at that period. The painter and sculptor took for their models the reliefs and statues of the Early Empire, and the funerary masons and scribes cut or wrote on the stelae and tombs texts which were composed under the VIth dynasty, or earlier. The monuments of the period are more often made of dark limestone, dark green or grey schist, and basalt than granite, which was so commonly used for coffins, statues, stelae, etc., under the Middle Empire. These substances give to the large monuments of the Saïte Period a sad and sometimes heavy effect. Among the many fine examples of the sculpture of the period may be mentioned : The black basalt kneeling statue of Uahåb-Rā, a prince and general of the army (see Plate XLV; Bay 21, No. 818); the portion of the kneeling figure of Khnem-åb-Rā-Men, prefect of Sars, holding a shrine of Neith (Bay 23, No. 819); the portion of a figure of Ankh-p-khart, a priest who had ministered in the temple for eighty years (Bay 24, No. 820); and the libation bowl dedicated to the goddesses Mut and Hathor (Bay 22, Nos. 821, 822). The casts of the Cow of Hathor and the Hippopotamus of Smețsmeț are also very in-tructive (Bay 25, No. 823 ; Bay 26, No. 824). Of the massive stone sarcophagi and coffins, Nos. 825-29 are very fine important examples. On the two granite sarcophagi of Nes-qetiu (No. 825) and Hāp-men (No. 826) are cut the figures of all the gods who were believed to protect the dead ; but the others (Nos. 827-29) are plainer. The sepulchral stelae are very numerous ; interesting examples will be found in Bays 21, 22, etc.
Twenty-Seventh Dynasty. From Persia.
The rule of the Persians over Egypt lasted about one hundred and ten years. Cambyses, having established himself as king, set out on an expedition to the Sûdân. On his way thither he despatched an army of 50.000 men to the Oasis of Jupiter Ammon, now known as Sîwah, to secure the submission of the tribes; but, after reaching Khârgah, these troops were never more heard of. Cambyses continued his march into Nubia, where, it seems, he came in touch with a native army somewhere near the Third Cataract. According to the annals of Năstasenen, king of Nubia, his boats were captured on the river, and all his soldiers slain after a fierce fight. Greek tradition states that Cambyses committed many sacrilegious acts in Egypt ; but the inscription of Utcha-her-resenet, the chancellor of Saïs, records that Cambyses cleared out the temple of Neith in that city, restored its revenues, and reinstated its priests. This done he went to the temple in person, and performed acts of worship, like the Pharaohs of old. The money which he gave the chancellor enabled him
to provide with a coffin the man who was too poor to buy one, and he took care of the children.” Darius I, Hystaspes, was a wise and enlightened king, and he tried to understand the religion and customs of the
Egyptians. He established a coinage, encouraged trade, subscribed money for expenses