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incurred in the discovery of a new Apis Bull, supported religious institutions, and commissioned the chancellor Utchaher-resenet to found a school for the training of scribes. He was tolerant; and built a temple to Amen-Rā in the Oasis of Al-Khârgah, on the walls of which is cut a remarkable hymn to Amen. He also completed the canal between the Nile and the Red Sea, which Necho began, and so added greatly to the prosperity of the country. In the latter part of his reign the Egyptians, led by Khabbesha, revolted against the Persian rule with


Darius determined to set out from Persia to put down the rebellion, but died before he could do so. The triumph of Khabbesha was short-lived, for Xerxes the Great marched against him, defeated his forces, and reduced the B.C. 486. country to servitude worse than before. Xerxes

did nothing for the gods or people of Egypt, and left few traces of his reign in the country. An alabaster vase inscribed with his name in four languages, Egyptian, Persian, Median and Babylonian, which was found at Halicarnassus, is exhibited in the Gold Room in the British Museum. For fragments of other vases, on which his

name appears in Egyptian letters, within a
cartouche, and with the additions “Pharaoh, the
Great," as here given, see Wall-cases Nos. 28
and 29, in the Babylonian Room. A cast of a
stele, dated in his fourth year, with a bilingual
inscription in Egyptian and

Egyptian and Aramean, is
exhibited in the Semitic Room (Second
Northern Gallery, Wall-case 29).
In the reign of Artaxerxes I another revolt,
B.C. 466.

headed by Inarós, a Libyan, who

was assisted by the Athenians, broke out, and at the battle of Papremis, the satrap of Egypt, Akhaemenes, was killed and his forces defeated. Subsequently the Persians defeated the Egyptians, and Inarôs was captured and taken to Persia, where a few years later he was impaled and flayed alive. Darius II, Nothus, repaired the temple of

Amen-Rā at Al-Khârgah, and

added his name to its walls. In his reign the Egyptians at length succeeded in

throwing off the Persian yoke. Their leader, Amyrtaios, has been thought to be Amen-rut-meri-Amen.

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B.C. 424.

Twenty-Eighth Dynasty. From Saïs.

B.C. 420 (?).

According to the King List of Manetho the XXVIIIth dynasty consisted of one king, who was named Amyrtaios; Julius Africanus and the Syncellus state that he reigned six years, and make Saïs the seat of his rule. At one time authorities identified Amyrtaios with the king Amen-ruț, whose


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is found on a plank from a coffin preserved at Berlin. The form of the prenomen, however, proves that Amen-ruţ lived at a period anterior to Amyrtaios, and the identification must, therefore, be abandoned.

Twenty-Ninth Dynasty. From Mendes.

B.C. 399.

Of the five kings of this dynasty only three appear to have left remains, viz. Naifāaurut (Nepherites), Haker (Achoris), and Psamut; their reigns were unimportant, their total length being only about twenty-one years.

Thirtieth Dynasty. From Sebennytus.

B.C. 378.

Nekht-Heru-hebt, the Yektanebês and Nektanebus I of

classical writers, succeeded in overthrowing the B.C. 378.

dynasty of Mendes, and made himself king of all Egypt, which he ruled with success for a period of eighteen years. He repaired several of the temples of Memphis and Thebes, and the temple of Darius I at Al-Khârgah, and revived the custom of setting up obelisks. He also founded the temple of Horus at Hebt, the modern Behbît-alHagârah. During his prosperous reign more attention was given to the performance of ceremonies connected with the


Obelisk dedicated to Thoth by King Pleru-nekht-hebt, B.C. 378. [Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 31, No. 919.)

XXXth dynasty.

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