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in Table-case M in the Fourth Egyptian Room. In division 4 of the same case is a good collection of Coptic crosses, pendants with figures of St. George, etc., from Panopolis. Several very fine examples of linenwork from Coptic graves and churches will be found in Table-cases E and J in the Third Egyptian Room, and a handsome bier cloth in Wallcases 70 and 71, in the Second Egyptian Room.

Soon after the Arabs had conquered Egypt, they found it necessary to keep a strong garrison at Syene, the modern Aswân. In order to relieve the soldiers of the garrison from the duty of a pilgrimage to Mekkah, an order was issued from Fosțâț, the first Arab capital in Egypt, near Old Cairo, that a pilgrimage to Aswân counted as a pilgrimage to Mekkah; hence for some two or three hundred years Aswân was regarded as a holy place, and pious Muslims were brought there from all parts to be buried. A collection of gravestones inscribed in Kûfi, or Kufic, a form of Arabic writing, from the old Muhammadan cemetery at Aswân, is exhibited in the Second Northern Gallery (Wall-cases 52-54). The oldest example is that of Azhar, son of Abd as-Salâm, who died in the year of the Hejira 252 = A.D. 866.

The Arab dynasties which ruled Egypt and the Sûdân between 656 and 1517 are as follows:

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The Arab domination came to an end in 1517, when Selim, sultân of Turkey, conquered the country, and Egypt became a Turkish Province, or Pashalik.

1 The word Khalifa means
• The word Mamlik means

successor," i.e., of the Prophet. " slave."

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Khāf-Rā (Chephren).
Menkau-Rā (Mykerinos).

Fifth Dynasty.

B.C. 3566.

Twelfth Dynasty.

B.C. 2466.
Amenemhāt I.
Usertsen I.
Amenemḥāt II.
Usertsen II.
Usertsen III.
Amenemhāt III.
Amenemhāt IV.
Usertsen IV.

Userkaf. Sahu-Rā. Neferårika-Rā. Shepseska-Rā. Khānefer-Rā. Useren-Rā An. Menkau-Heru. Tetka-Rā Assa. Unás.


Sixth Dynasty.

B.C. 3330.

Userka-Rā Åti.
Pepi I.
Meren-Rā I.
Pepi II.
Meren-Rā II.

Eighteenth Dynasty.
Áāhmes I
Ámen-hetep I

B.C. 1600.
Thothmes I
Thothmes II

B.C. 1550.
Thothmes III
Amen-ḥetep II, B.C. 1500.
Thothmes IV

B.C. 1450.
Amen-ḥetep III
Amen-hetep IV
(or Khu-en-Aten)
Tutankh-Amen B.C. 1400.


Eleventh Dynasty.

B.C. 2600.

Nineteenth Dynasty.


Åntef, the Erpā.
Antef Uah ānkh.
Åntef Nekht-neb-tep-nefer.
Menthu-hetep I.
Menthu-hetep II.
Menthu-hetep III.
Menthu-hetep IV.
Menthu-hetep V.
Menthu-hetep VI.
Menthu-hetep VII.

Rameses I

B.C. 1350. Seti I Rameses II, B.C. 1330. Meren-Ptah. Amenmeses, B.C. 1250. Sa-Ptah. Seti II. Arsu, the Syrian.

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Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtaios.

B.C. 340.

Alexander the Great.
Philip Arrhidaeus.
Alexander II.

Twenty-ninth Dynasty.

B.C. 399.

Ptolemies. Naifāarut.

B.C. 305-30.

Ptolemy I.
Ptolemy II.

Ptolemy III.
Thirtieth Dynasty.

Ptolemy IV.

Ptolemy V.
B.C. 378.

Ptolemy VI.

Ptolemy VII. Nekht - Heru - heb

(Nekta- Ptolemy VIII. nebês).

Ptolemy IX. Tchehra (Teos)

Ptolemy X.
Nekht-nebf (Nektanebos).

Ptolemy XI.
Ptolemy XII.
Ptolemy XIII.

Thirty-first Dynasty. Ptolemy XIV.

Ptolemy XV.
Darius III, B.C. 336.

Ptolemy XVI.

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