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the Rondanini Medusa, in which the Medusa's mask is represented as of formal beauty, in place of the older and cruder form with protruding tongue.
Below is the so-called · Ludovisi Throne,' now in the Museo delle Terme at Rome. The purpose of this object, and the interpretation of its reliefs, must necessarily be considered with reference to a corresponding composition now in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston, U.S.A. (see the exhibited illustration). It is suggested by Prof. Studniczka, who has published an elaborate discussion of the whole (Jahrb. d. Arch. Inst., xxvi.), that the two objects are the halves of a sculptured altar; that the principal reliefs show : (Ludovisi relief) the birth of Aphrodite from the sea and her reception by the Hours ; (Boston relief) Eros with the scales, weighing out the portions of the year to be spent by Adonis with his terrestrial spouse (Aphrodite) and his spouse below (Persephone). The side reliefs show (Ludovisi relief) two aspects of Aphrodite, and (Boston relief) Adonis and an old nurse tending the tree Myrrha, into which the mother of Adonis suffered metamorphosis. The period of the work is perhaps that of the close of the archaic style, immediately after the Persian wars.
Screen G 2. Reliefs in the archaistic (or affected archaic) style. (Compare p. 93.)
Proceeding round the room, we pass :
The Giustiniani Hestia, also a work of the middle of the 5th cent. B.C., but apparently akin to the sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (see below).
Eirene and Ploutos (i.e. Peace, and Wealth, her child) by Cephisodotos, father of Praxiteles.
Cast of a statue of Victory, by Paionios of Mendè. Victory is supposed to be moving forward through mid-air. One foot rests lightly on the back of an eagle, beneath which is a rock. On the pedestal was an inscription (see cast) recording that the Victory was offered as a tithe of spoil to Olympian Zeus by the Messenians and Naupactians, and that the sculptor was Paionios of Mendè. The inscription, perhaps for reasons of policy, is not explicit as to the war in which the spoil was taken. Pausanias was inclined to think that it referred to a war of the Messenians against the Acarnanians (452 B.C.); but the Messenians of his time supposed that the statue was erected soon after the campaign against the Spartans at Sphacteria in 425 B.C. Discovered by the German excavators, and now in the Museum at Olympia.
In front of the pedestal is the famous Hermes, resting, from Herculaneum. The original is in the National Museum at Naples, and is probably after a work of the 4th cent. B.C. of the school of Lysippus.
Hermes and the babe Dionysos. The marble original was found in the Temple of Hera, at Olympia, in 1877. The statue is assigned to Praxiteles, on the authority of Pausanias (V. 17. 3). The child on the left arm of Hermes is stretching out his hand to some object, probably a bunch of grapes, held out in the missing right hand of the god.
Aphrodite of Cnidos, From the Vatican replica of the statue of Aphrodite entering the bath, by Praxiteles. The statue, which was given by Praxiteles to the city of Cnidos, is identified from coins. Another replica of the subject, from Munich, is in the middle gangway.
The sculptures in the corner of the room are connected with the group of Niobe and her children, which once stood in the Temple of Apollo at Rome. Whether the group was the work of Praxiteles or Scopas was a matter of controversy even in the days of Pliny. The best known examples of the types of the group are now in the Uffizi Museum at Florence. The casts here shown are (1) Niobe and her youngest daughter, from the Uffizi ; (2) a replica of the head of Niobe, in the collection of the Earl of Yarborough at Brocklesby Park; (3) a torso of one of the daughters of Niobe, in the Chiaramonti Museum of the Vatican.
The reliefs in this corner of the room are from the tomb of GjölBaschi, in Lycia. The wall of the enclosure (or temenos) of the tomb was covered with reliefs of a pictorial character.
The scenes represented on the slabs here shown are (1) an attack on a city presumably Troy ; (2) the slaying of the suitors of Penelope, by Odysseus and Telemachus. The reliefs are probably of the middle of the 5th cent. B.C.
Proceeding along the south gangway we pass (on the left) the Aphrodite of Capua and the Aphrodite of Arles and (on the right) the Aphrodite of Melos, otherwise known as the Venus of Milo. The statue was found in the island of Melos (French Milo) in 1820, and is now in the Louvre. The restoration and date are equally matters of controversy, but the statue seems to be 4th-3rd cent. B.C.
The large sarcophagus with combats of Greeks and Amazons is now in the Museum at Vienna. It was brought to Germany from the Levant after the battle of Lepanto (1571).
On the left of the gangway is the Apoxyomenos, or athlete scraping off oil with a strigil. Found in Trastevere, Rome, in 1849, and formerly regarded as a work of Lysippus. The recent discovery of a contemporary copy of the portrait of Agias, by Lysippus (see cast of the head), has thrown doubt on the correctness of this attribution,
The bust of Athene, or Pallas, is from the colossal statue in the Louvre, known, from its place of discovery, as the Pallas of Velletri. It is an unidentified type, probably of the latter half of the 5th cent. B.C.
The Belvedere Apollo was found (perhaps near Antium) before 1500 A.D.
It stands in the cortile of the Belvedere at the Vatican. Correctly restored, it is probable that the god held a bow in the stretched-out left hand and a branch of laurel in the right. [The view current in recent years that Apollo held an ægis in the left
hand cannot be maintained.] The date of the original, from which the Vatican statue is a modified copy, is still uncertain.
A finely draped portrait statue of a Roman lady, from Herculaneum, is now in the Museum at Dresden. The type of draped figure appears
back to the 4th cent. B.C. The triangular tripod base, commonly known as the Altar of the Twelve Gods in the Louvre), gives figures (considerably restored) of the twelve gods, grouped in pairs, viz., Zeus and Hera, Poseidon and Demeter, Apollo and Artemis, Hephaestos and Athene, Ares and Aphrodite, Hermes and Hestia.
The bronze figure of the Praying Boy,' one of the chief ornaments of the Museum at Berlin, is probably after a fourth century type.
The chair (no. 2709) is from the chair of the priest of Dionysos of Eleutherae in the theatre of Dionysos at Athens.
The followi casts are from some of the best known works of ancient art. The · Ludovisi Ares' is seated in an easy pose, with a figure of Eros on the ground between his legs—perhaps after a work of Scopas. The · Borghese Gladiator' (Louvre) is a figure of an armed heroic warrior, probably in combat with a horse
Signed with the name of Agasias of Ephesus (2nd cent. B.C.). The group
of Laocoon and his sons was found on the Esquiline Hill at Rome in 1506, and is now in the Vatican. A work of the Rhodian School, about 100 B.C.
On the wall is a long frieze of the marriage procession of Poseidon (Neptune) and Amphitrite (Munich). It has been lately identified as forming, with other reliefs in the Louvre, the sculptured decoration of an altar which stood before a temple of Neptune erected by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus in commemoration of a naval victory gained at Brindisi in 42 B.C.
The colossal relief on the wall is a scene from the frieze of the great altar of Zeus at Pergamon, erected by Eumenes II. about 180-170 B.C. The subjects are taken from the war of the Gods and Giants. In this group Athene, crowned by Victory, slays a young Giant, for whom intercession is made by his mother Earth, half issuing from the ground. The Pergamene school of sculpture was noted for its treatment of rough and barbarous types, with shaggy hair, and strong action.
The figures in front of the relief, namely, two Persians, a dead Amazon, and an old Gaul, are also from works of the Pergamene school. They are reproductions of figures in a series of votive groups dedicated by Attalus I. of Pergamon on the Athenian Acropolis (about 200 B.c.) in commemoration of a victory over the Galatians, or Gauls. The dying Gaul (or so-called Dying Gladiator) on the opposite side is a work of the same school.
We return to the east end of the central gangway, and observe :
A replica of the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles in the Munich Glyptothek, already mentioned above.
The Satyr (or · Faun '), in the Museum of the Capitol. This
famous statue is probably a copy of the Satyr of Praxiteles in the Street of Tripods at Athens, regarded as one of his most famous works.
The · Apollino,' or statue of a young Apollo, in the Uffizi at Florence, is probably a work of Praxiteles or one of his pupils.
The Apollo Sauroctonos of the Vatican represents Apollo as a youth idly trying to pierce a lizard with an arrow held in his hand. This also was a work of Praxiteles, preserved to us in many copies.
The bronze praying youth from Virunum (now at Vienna) was dedicated by two freedmen, whose names are engraved on his thigh. It is probably a Graeco-Roman copy, of the beginning of our era, from a Greek statue of a young athletic victor.
The running figure of Hypnos (Sleep) from Madrid is of the same type as the bronze head in the Bronze Room (cf. p. 182), and has been employed to give the correct pose of that work.
The boy drawing a thorn from his foot (in bronze) is reproduced from a famous statue in the Museum of the Conservatori at Rome. A more realistic rendering of the same subject in marble may be seen in the Third Graeco-Roman Room.
The Venus dei Medici, in the Uffizi at Florence, is a statue which enjoyed extraordinary celebrity from the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. It is one of a large number of replicas of an unidentified original.
The pedestal with glass shade supports a considerable number of interesting casts of bronzes and other works.
Near the end of the central gangway are several typical archaistie figures, in which the peculiarities of archaic work are reproduced and accentuated by accomplished artists of much later date.
At the west end of the gallery are examples of sculpture of the Roman Empire.
Augustus, in armour. A fine statue from Prima Porta, Rome. The head should be compared with that from Meroë in the Bronze Room (Plate XXII.). The Prima Porta head represents a somewhat more advanced age than does that of Meroë.
The large sarcophagus (2715) was formerly known as that of Alexander Severus. On the front is the scene of the discovery of Achilles among the daughters of Lycomedes, and on the other three sides are reliefs relating to the story of Achilles. On the lid are two recumbent figures of the third century A.D. The sarcophagus was found in the sixteenth century in the Monte del Grano, near Rome, and was long reported by tradition to have contained the Portland Vase. The accuracy of the story has lately been questioned.
On the walls at the corner of the room are examples of Roman Imperial sculpture from the Arch of Trajan at Beneventum (erected 114 A.D.). The exhibited reliefs consist of :
A. Panel from the attic member of the arch : Olympian deities about to welcome Trajan.
B. A part of the frieze that surmounted the arch, showing Trajan's Dacian triumph.
C, D. Panels from the pylons at the sides of the arch: Attendants burning incense ; Victories sacrificing bulls.
E. Trajan presenting to Roma and Mars Roman children destined to inhabit the new provinces.
[We return, through the Graeco-Roman Basement, by the staircase to the Third Graeco-Roman Room, and pass through it to the Second Graeco-Roman Room.]
SECOND GRAECO-ROMAN ROOM.
SUBJECT :-GRAECO-ROMAN SCULPTURES (continued).
In this room, turning to the left on entering from the Third Room, we find :
1608. A square terminal figure of the bearded Dionysos, in the archaistic manner.
250. Copy of the bronze Discobolos of Myron, an Athenian
Fig. 47.- The Discobolos of Myron, with the head correctly restored (after Michaelis).