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dedicated, as shown by the inscription on the base, by her freedman Epithymetus. It is of the period of Trajan.

1913. Bust of the infamous tyrant Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius. Born 161 A.D. Colleague with his father, 176 A.D. Sole emperor 180

Murdered by members of his household, 192 A.D.

1916. Septimius Severus, who died at York, A.D. 211.

Above, 2593, 2594, are two of the Corinthian pilaster capitals which formerly belonged to the upper internal order of the Pantheon at Rome.

Between them (2313) is part of the relief from the sarcophagus of M. Sempronius Nicocrates. He claims, in his metrical epitaph, that he was poet, musician and traveller, and a dealer in fair women.

Now the Muses guard his body. 1415. (Against the pilaster.) A finely draped female portrait statue, probably of the time of Hadrian.

1917. Head of Caracalla. Born 180 A.D. He was a colleague in the empire with his father Septimius Severus and his brother Geta. On the death of his father he murdered his brother with his own hand (211 A.D.) and so became sole emperor (cf. p. 149). The neck is slightly inclined to the shoulders. We are told by the emperor's biographer, Aurelius Victor, that he had been induced by flatterers to believe that when he frowned and turned his head he made himself resemble Alexander the Great. (See p. 86.)

Above are two sarcophagi with scenes in the circus. 2318 shows the actual circus ; 2319 is a parody with Cupids driving teams of dogs.

At the end of the room is a vigorous relief (2276) with portraits of two fellow freedwomen, Fonteia Eleusis and Fonteia Helena.

[The Roman mosaics on the upper part of the wall of this gallery, and the various Roman and other remains which stand opposite to the busts, have been found in this country, and are therefore included in the collections of the British and Medieval Department.]

[On leaving the Roman Gallery by the East door, we turn to the Hall of Inscriptions, on each side of the entrance to the Reading Room.]





Among the selected inscriptions which are here exhibited, the most interesting are the following.

In the west (or left) half of the room :

80*. A tall marble slab from Sigeum, in the Troad, inscribed with the record of a dedication by Phanodicos of Proconnesos, and giving the name of an artist, Aisopos. The inscription is written boustrophedon ; that is, alternately from left and right (see p. 6). It is given twice, in the Ionic character above, and in the Attic character below. It probably dates from the beginning of the sixth century B.C. The stone served in modern times as the seat in the porch of the church at Sigeum, until it was removed by Lord Elgin. It was specially resorted to by the sick, for its supposed magic influence, and the inscription has thus been nearly obliterated.

399-402.-Pier (parastas or anta) of the temple at Prienė, in Asia Minor, with inscriptions relating to Alexander the Great, and his successor Lysimachos. The large inscription at the top is the dedication of the temple to Athenè Polias by Alexander (circa 334 B.C.) mentioned above, p. 76.


Βασιλεύς Αλέξανδρος ανέθηκε τον ναόν 'Αθηναίη Πολιάδι. .

This pier is crowned with a cast of the capital. The original is in the Mausoleum Room.

886. A decree passed in the names of the convention of the Halicarnassians and Salmakitians, and Lygdamis the tyrant, about 455 B.C., for the purpose of regularising and confirming the possession

* Most of the Greek Inscriptions have been published in the Ancient Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum, Parts I.-IV. (£4). The greater part of the collection is only accessible to persons desiring to make special studies (p. 78).

of real property at Halicarnassos. The town of Halicarnassos was originally divided into the two sections named above.

81*. Treaty of alliance between Hermias (or Hermeias), ruler of Atarneus, and the people of Erythrae in Asia Minor (about 357 B.C.). Hermias, a slave and eunuch, succeeded to the sovereignty of Atarneus. He is best known as the friend and patron of Aristotle, who dedicated to his memory the Ode to Virtue, and also a statue at Delphi.

On the West wall, and on the right return face of the pier, is an elaborate series of documents relating to boundary disputes between Priene and Samos, inscribed for permanent record by the Prienians on the walls of the temple of Athenè Polias. The principal documents here preserved are (403) an award by the Rhodians who had been invited to arbitrate, and decided in favour of Priene (circa 240 B.C.), and (405) a decree of the Roman Senate (about 135 B.C.) confirming the Rhodian award which had been set aside by the consul Manlius.

343. The square shaft opposite the middle of the West wall contains a copy of a decree concerning a national subscription in aid of the Rhodian navy, at a time of grave emergency-perhaps about 200 B.C. The decree occupies half a column, and is followed by the names of the subscribers with their respective contributions on the remaining three and a half columns. Presented by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, 1873.

On the North wall, the large upper inscription (No. 481), which formed the sloping wall flanking the south entrance in the Great Theatre at Ephesus, contains documents relating to gifts and bequests by one Caius Vibius Salutaris (A.D. 104) to the city of Ephesus. The gifts consist partly of gold and silver images of Artemis and other subjects, and partly of a capital sum of money to provide annual doles on the birthday of the goddess. Curious conditions are laid down as to the carrying of the images in procession from the temple to the theatre to attend assemblies or games. The images are to be taken by way of the Magnesian gate, and to return by way of the Coressian gate. From the topographical information thus given, Mr. Wood obtained the clue by which he found the temple site.

Below the inscription last mentioned are :

448-476. Wall-stones from the temple of Diana at Ephesus, inscribed with grants of citizenship and other honours to benefactors of Ephesus.

113.* 1: On the floor is a cast of an inscription in very early Latin. The original was excavated in May, 1899, in the Roman Forum. It was found, with other early remains, beneath a piece of black pavement, which some have identified with the niger lapis, supposed in antiquity to mark the position of the grave of Romulus. The inscription is Latin, written in Archaic Greek characters, and boustrophedon (see p. 112). The words easily identified, such as sacros, kulatorem (Calator, an attendant on a priest), and jugmenta

(= jumenta ?), seem to indicate that the inscription refers to animals used for sacrifice, but the sense has not been determined with any certainty. Presented by H.M. Queen Victoria.

In the East (or right) half of the room (on the North wall)


(On the upper shelf)

522. An inscription in Greek and Latin, recording the rebuilding of the outer boundary walls of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus by order of Augustus, B.C. 6. The intentional erasure of the name of the proconsul, C. Asinius Gallus, recalls a tragedy of the reign of Tiberius. Gallus had offended the emperor by marrying his divorced wife, and by speaking too freely of his government. By command of Tiberius he was condemned unheard by the Senate at Rome, at the moment that he was enjoying the emperor's hospitality at Capri. He was there arrested, and after three years of rigorous imprisonment he was starved to death.

His name was in consequence erased from the inscription.

(On the second shelf)

Athenian inscriptions, of various purport.


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37. Epitaph in elegiac verse, on Athenians who fell in battle before Potidaea. Potidaea was a town in the Thracian peninsula, and tributary to Athens. With the help of Corinth it revolted in the summer of 432 B.C. The Athenians sent an expedition to Potidaea, which gained a victory ; but only with the loss of the commander Callias and 150 men, who are here commemorated [Thucyd. i. 63; Grote, vol. iv. chap. 47]. The Peloponnesian war was an immediate consequence of the Potidaean campaign.

After a prose heading, 'En llor[aldatą k.t.d.], . These died in Potidaea,' and the first two couplets, which are very imperfect, the epitaph proceeds :

Αιθήρ μεμ φσυχάς υπεδέχσατο, σώματα δε χθών]

τωνδε · Ποτειδαίας δ' αμφί πύλας έλβυθεν.]
εχθρών δ' οι μεν έχουσι τάφου μέρος, [οι δε φυγόντες]

τείχος πιστοτάτην ελπίδ' έθεντο [βίου].

"Ανδρας μέμ πόλις ήδε ποθεί και δη[μος Ερεχθέως],

πρόσθε Ποτειδαίας οι θάνoν έμ προμάχοις παίδες Αθηναίων, φσυχάς δ' αντίρροπα θέντες]

ή[λλάχσαντ' αρετήν, και πατρίδ'] ευκλείσαν). ' Air received their souls, and earth their bodies. They were undone around the gates of Potidaea. Of their foes, some have their portion in the grave, others (fled) and made a wall their sure hope (of life). This state and people (of Erechtheus) mourns its citizens who died in the front ranks, before Potidaea, children of the Athenians. They cast their lives into the scales in exchange for valour, and their country's glory.'

On the East wall are selected Latin Inscriptions. The following may be mentioned :

(In the first bay from the left)

82*. Beginning of a poem, on a visit to Egypt (A.D. 134), in bombastic hexameters. From Nubia. [C. I. L. iii. 77.]

83* Record of the building of a bridge, A.D. 90, by the Emperor Domitian, whose name is here erased. The inscription was found at Coptos in Egypt. We are told by Suetonius that after the assassination of Domitian a decree of the Senate was passed that his inscriptions should everywhere be erased, and all record of him abolished. [C. I. L. iii. 13580.]

(In the second bay)

84* A small slab containing the name of Vitruvius Pollio, followed by the letters A R C H, which have been taken to mean 'Architectus,' and to connect the inscription with Vitruvius, the celebrated writer on architecture, to whom the surname Pollio is given on doubtful authority. But the name is not uncommon, and another proposal is to take these letters as an abbreviation of • Archigubernus,' or commander of a ship. From Baino. [C. I. L. x. 3393.

2391. Greek sepulchral relief, with a recumbent corpse. The spectator is asked whether he can tell if the deceased was a Hylas (the beautiful boy beloved of the Nymphs) or a Thersites (the ugly clown in Homer). The Ionic columns (2564, 2565) which stand on each side of this bay were removed by Lord Elgin from a wall attached to the church of the Monastery of Daphnè on the road from Athens to Eleusis. They appear to have been derived from an ancient temple which occupied the same site.]

(On the South wall)

811, 812. Two tablets with objects of the toilet, dedicated by Anthusa and Claudia Ageta. For a further account, see p. 149.

171. A Greek inscription from Thessalonica, containing the names of certain civic magistrates, styled Politarchs,' an common local title, accurately quoted by St. Luke (Acts xvii. 6, 8).


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