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A singular calthrop from Kertch is made out of a part of the human radius bone.

Table-case F. Objects connected with the Toilet and Personal use.

At the end next to the middle of the room are Mirrors of various forms in bronze, silver, and silver-plated. Next in order are : Tweezers, razors, and similar implements of the toilet.

Boots and shoes. Actual specimens are shown of a leather shoe from the City of London (further examples are in the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities) ; of a pair of cork solos, gilded, from Egypt; and of a pair of bronze soles. Vases and other objects illustrate various fashions of footgear. See also a bronze statuette of a negro slave cleaning a boot.

Brooches (Fibulae). The principal types are shown, arranged in historical order from the late Mycenaean to the late Roman period. They illustrate the antiquity of the principle of the safetypin and the numerous modifications of its details.

Personal Ornaments. A few typical examples of such objects as pins, bracelets, rings, hooks, etc. The finer examples in precious metals will be found in the Gold Ornament Room.

Combs. Examples are shown from the Mycenaean to the late Roman periods. The combination of thick and thin teeth on the same comb was well known to the ancients. See also a brush, with dried grass bristles, from Egypt.

Cosmetics. Toilet boxes of rouge and other cosmetics.
Table-case G contains objects connected with Domestic Life.

Pins are arranged so as to show their supposed progress from a natural thorn or piece of bone to the pin as we know it.

Needles are arranged on a similar principle, showing the change of form from the natural thorn with a groove round the end or with one, two, or three eyes.

Next to the needles are a needle-case with needles in it; a thimble, and some pairs of scissors, together with knitting needles, a small shuttle, and objects of the form of crochet needles.

Spinning is represented by spindles and a vase (382) showing a woman at work; weaving by a collection of loom weights, intended for suspension at the end of the vertical threads of the warp. A few specimens of cloth are shown. One is from the mummy of Diogenes, who was by trade a “patcher.'

A collection of padlocks, parts of locks, and keys, is followed by a group showing methods of sealing with clay or lead.

The Fish hooks are accompanied by statuettes of fish sellers.

A collection of knives shows early forms of the clasp knife, as well as of the fixed knife. See the relief (Case 41) showing the stock in a cutler's shop.

Table-case H contains objects illustrative of various Industrial processes and of Science.

At the end nearest the middle of the room is a collection of Surgical Instruments, such as bistouries, tweezers, tenacula,


spatulae and the like. A cast of a votive relief at Athens shows a hinged and fitted instrument case lying open, with a large cupping vessel on each side of it. A bronze cupping vessel is also shown. A series of inscribed stamps were used for stamping cakes of ere salve and other medicinal pastes. A sard intaglio with Athena seated and the legend · Herophili opobalsamum’ was used for sealing packets of eye salves. “A physician's seal shows a doctor examining a patient for dilatation of the stomach, under the

Fig. 67.—Needles, Needle-case, Scissors, Thimble.

immediate supervision of Aesculapius himself, who stands watching, leaning on his serpent-entwined staff.

Some statuettes show various forms of deformity and disease.

Adjoining the instruments are compasses and measures. Among them are two folding foot rules; two pairs of proportional compasses ; an object of uncertain use, which may perhaps be the eyepiece of a Roman surveying instrument; a small sundial.

A cup is inscribed · Hemikotylion, that is half a pint.
A series of Stamps for impressing on soft clay, or other like

which may

material, have usually a Roman proper name, often within a frame

be shaped as a foot, a shoe, a galley and the like. One example, of a very rare type, is cylindrical and pivoted, to be impressed by rolling.

Metal 'working. Stone moulds, of the Mycenaean period,

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from Cyprus, for casting bronze implements ; smaller moulds, used for the production of jewellery. Fig. 68 shows one part of a piece mould in three pieces, for casting rings of Mycenaean type. A mould of the Graeco-Roman period, for casting a weight, is inscribed KEPAOC, that is ‘gain.' A stone mould is also here, for casting lead counters (tesserae). Two lead studs (of which part of one

Fig. 69.- A Potter at Work. B 432.

remains) served to fit the two halves of the mould in correct position, and the metal was poured through the funnel-like channel.

A vase (B 507) shows the forge of Hephaestos. Compare the relief with a Roman cutler's forge, in Case 48.

Pottery. A vase (B432) shows a Potter at work. Before him is his wheel, a heavy stone rotated by the hand, and kept in

motion by its momentum. At present, however, the wheel serves as a table, and the potter attaches a handle to a kylix. On a shelf above are five finished vases (fig. 69).

A statuette from Amathus appears to represent a potter shaping a vase on a small wheel at his feet.

A circular object of terracotta, from Crete, is of uncertain use, but may be a small potter's wheel.

An unfinished example of a red-figure drawing shows the method adopted in this class of vase painting (see p. 226). A broad line is drawn on the outside of the subject, so that the subject is left in the ground colour of the vase. To complete the process the external ground must be filled in with black.

Lead bands and rivets, large and small, show the methods of mending or strengthening clay vessels.

Moulds are shown for vases with relief ; and for terracotta lamps. Three stamps in relief are also shown, with roughly shaped handles behind. These were employed for the preparation of the terracotta moulds for vases with relief. Two batches of common clay lamps have been spoilt in the kiln. In one of the lamps the subject is a pet dog, which has jumped on to a couch. A terracotta figure and a lamp show the results of fantastic combinations of moulds that do not belong together. In C 780 the halves of two different figures are united. In G 134 a head of Helios is combined with the arm of a lyre player.

Inlaying and enamelling. Examples of late enamelled ornaments; of a marble plaque with a Gryphon, formerly filled in with paste ; fragments of an elaborate acanthus pattern of ivory, probably inlaid in wood. From Kertch.

Wood working. Wooden box from Kertch, with dove-tailed joints, sliding lids, and inner partitions. The upper edges have woods inlaid.

The Lathe. A group of objects, finished on the lathe, and showing its employment for work in bronze, ivory, bone, wood, marble and alabaster. See also a few specimens of fretwork.

Gem Engraving, etc. Beads and engraved gems at various stages of manufacture. Handles for the upper pivot of a revolving drill; moulds from Naucratis, for the manufacture of GraecoEgyptian porcelain scarabs.

Table-case J. Infancy; Toys and games. At the end of the case are a few illustrations of Infancy. In terracotta, Eros is asleep in a cradle, and so also are two children. On one of the vases is an interesting scene of a baby imprisoned in a turret-shaped high chair, among his toys. On others, boys are playing with a gocart, etc. A collection of toys includes several terracottas from tombs, among which it is by no means easy to decide which must be regarded strictly as toys, and which are offerings of a votive character. It seems reasonable, however, to regard the jointed figures as toys, since that is the only purpose for which jointed limbs are required. In any case, there can be no doubt as to the rag-doll and wooden horse from Egypt. The toys proper include a rattle, whistles, a wheel to drag along, and diminutive objects in lead or pottery, such as are now used for dolls' houses.

A group from a girl's tomb near Athens consists of a doll, with movable arms, seated on a high-backed throne, together with a pair of boots, an appliance placed on the knee for carding wool, and a model vase to hold lustral water, such as was placed in the tomb of a person who died unmarried.

The appliances for Games include counters in many forms, marbles, draughtsmen, and knucklebones (astragali). The latter are either the natural bones, or copies in bronze, lead, ivory, crystal, etc. Two of the knucklebones are cleverly modified to represent a Satyr and a squatting dwarf.

For use in games of chance, we have dice boxes, and dice, teetotums, a 14-sided die and a 20-sided die. The dice are in many materials, from bone to crystal with gilded spots.

Table-case J (continued). Reading, Writing and Painting.

The objects connected with painting include various materials used by painters, specimens of colour, palettes, and an alabaster stand for mixing the colours. There are also specimens of encaustic painting on wooden panels (compare Wall-case No. 72). In one case the panel is contained in a picture frame, singularly modern in its details. It is of the kind known as an “Oxford' frame, with keyed double mortice joints, a groove for a pane of glass, a half-mitred inner frame, and a rough cord for suspension.

Fig. 70.--Jointed Doll. The remainder of the contains objects connected with Reading and Writing. These include:

Inkstands and pens in bronze or bone or reed, together with a specimen of an ordinary letter written in ink on papyrus. The writer sends an order for drugs which must not be rotten stuff. Two leaves are also shown of a lawyer's note-book.

Drafts of cases, etc., are written with ink, on the whitened wooden tablets. The last leaf has a place for the pen annexed to it.

Next to these are Wooden tablets, covered with wax for writing. A raised margin of wood protects the surface of the writing from abrasion.

One of the tablets is that of a schoolboy, and contains a

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