Page images

leaves a raised impression of its design, repeated over and over, in a band round the body of the vase. The examples here shown are mostly from Cameiros in Rhodes (with these must be grouped two

[graphic][graphic][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

large vases over Wall-cases 27 and 38). The Etruscan examples have been placed in the Italic Room.

Wall-cases 44-53 contain examples of the later fabrics of Cyprus. (The earlier wares of the Bronze Age and Mycenaean period, on the other side of the room, have been described above.)

Cases 44-45. Cypriote wares of the sub-Mycenaean and transitional periods (10th-9th centuries B.c.), showing signs of transition from the Mycenaean to the subsequent Graeco-Phoenician' period.

Cases 46-47. Local Cypriote fabrics of the Graeco-Phoenician period. The Cypriote fabrics show a marked preference for geometric elements of decoration. As compared with the Dipylon wares they

[graphic][graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

make more use of the spiral and concentric circles, and less use of the maeander.

Vases C 853, 854, 855 are examples of a local fabric which is

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


found at Amathus, with free drawing. C 855 has a quite exceptional scene of a rural picnic. Cases 48, 49. Cypriote ware of the so-called “ornate embroi

dery' style, with the field fully occupied by rosettes and other patterns, combined with figuresubjects and animals. 7th-6th centuries B.C.

(Fig. 99.) Cases 50, 51. Cypriote red ware of the 6th-5th centuries B.C. The decoration consists mainly of concentric circles, in black or white, on the rich red ground.

Cases 52, 53. Later Cypriote fabrics. These include degraded forms of geometric decoration, and a series of pitchers, which have spouts in the shape of vases held by female figures, attached in high relief.

Cases 54-57. Later variations of the geometric style, from the western

Examples from Sardinia and South Italy. 7th-6th centuries B.C.

Cases 56-57 (lower part). A group of vases found together in an early tomb at Corfu, identified by the inscription as the tomb of one Menecrates, of Oeantheia. Menecrates was drowned at sea, and his tomb was erected by the people of Corcyra (Corfu), for whorn he had acted as Proxenos (Consul, cf. p. 167).

Case 58. Degraded and late forms of geometric ornament from South Italy, of the fifth century or later.

Cases 59, 60, 61 and the two large standing cases (see also above, 48 and in Cases 62, 63) contain terracotta Sarcophagi of the

sixth century B.C., obtained for the most part from Clazomenae, a town at the entrance of the Gulf of Smyrna.

Case 59. Sarcophagus from Clazomenae. At the head is a Sphinx between two lions. The Sphinx, which apparently has two bodies and one head, is drawn according to a not uncommon conven


Fig. 1000.-Cover of Sarcophagus from Clazomenae.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

tion in early art, whereby the artist attempts to give both sides of an object.

Case 60. Small terracotta sarcophagus from Cameiros, painted in the style of the Rhodian vases. The subjects consist of an ox between two lions, two helmeted heads, cable borders and lions.

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

The two standing cases contain the cover and the body of a large terracotta sarcophagus * from Clazomenae (fig. 100, a and b).

Illustrated and described by A. S. Murray, Terracotta Sarcophagi, Greek and Etruscan, in the British Museum, 1898 (28s.).

The sarcophagus is richly adorned, both within and without, with geometric patterns and figure-subjects. On the cover arelong side (A), three friezes : (1) Odysseus and Diomede are slaying Dolon, in the middle. On each side of the central group are three two-horse racing-chariots approaching the centre. (2) Sphinxes and Sirens. (3) Combat between Greeks on foot and mounted barbarians, probably raiding Cimmerians. Long side (B), three friezes : (1) In the middle, a combat over a fallen warrior. On each side, stationary chariots. A warrior mounting one of the chariots seems to be leading a female captive by the wrist. (2) Animals. (3) Combat of figures on foot. End (A), two horsemen and two figures on each side of a central column. End (B), two Centaurs and two Sphinxes on each side of an Ionic column. On under side of cover: two pairs of Sphinxes; two scenes of the slaying of Dolon; combat of chariots and footmen,

On the body of the sarcophagus are: interior, long sides, scenes of preparation for chariot races, and other sports held as funeral games. In the middle a boy playing on double pipes is significant as showing that the scene is one of games and not of war. Short sides : armed warriors, horses and dogs.

On the upper margin of the body are a series of chariot races. At each end of the long bands is a caldron on a column, presumably a prize vase. The figure beside the column may be the shade of the deceased person in whose honour the games are held.

This sarcophagus, with its long multitudinous friezes, is a characteristic example of the early art of Ionian Asia Minor. Its date is probably the middle of the sixth century B.C.

Cases 62–64. A collection of objects in glazed faience ware (sometimes incorrectly called 'porcelain '), of all periods.

Table-case E contains smaller objects, of the period of strong Oriental influence, that is, about the seventh century B.C. The objects in question consist of vases of variegated glass and alabaster; objects in ivory and bone; and especially of vases, statuettes, scarabs, etc., in faience. The latter have a strongly-marked Egyptian character. They reproduce Egyptian forms of decoration, Egyptian types of deities, and Egyptian hieroglyphics. These, however, are usually more or less blundered and unintelligently rendered, and the faience wares found in non-Egyptian sites are therefore for the most part imitations and not genuine Egyptian products. A faience vase (A 1184) from Cameiros, with hieroglyphic new year greetings, should be compared with the similar vases from the Polledrara tomb (p. 173).

This table-case also contains (186) a Phoenician bronze bowl, with subjects incised. In the centre is an Egyptian type of a king seizing his enemies and slaying them with a mace in the presence of the god Menthu-Ra. Round the margin is a semi-Egyptian rendering of a banquet scene. From Cyprus.

Objects of the class here represented are usually found in Mediterranean sites, to which the Phoenicians had ready access, such as Rhodes and Cyprus, and also in Sardinia and Etruria. They were also found, however, at Naucratis in Egypt, with moulds for the manufacture of scarabs, and in part at least they may therefore be attributed to that town. The theory of a Greek source is confirmed by the faience vase in form of a dolphin, which has the name of Pythes inscribed in archaic Greek characters round the lip.

In the same table-case is a shell (Tridacna squamosa) ornamented with a female head, and with an incised design of winged Sphinxes, probably of Phoenician origin. This shell is from a tomb at Canino in Etruria. Beside it is a fragment of a similar shell found at Cameiros in Rhodes; other fragments found at Naucratis, on the site of the Temple of Apollo, are in the same case.

Above Table-case E are:
Two shades with select objects in glass and faience.





The majority of the vases in this room belong to the Blackfigured class, and the remainder are of an allied character. In the two subsequent rooms the majority of the vases are Redfigured. The meaning of this fundamental distinction is illustrated by the annexed cut (fig. 101) after a part of a vase (at Palermo) by the painter Andokides, who has combined the two styles by caprice. It is apparent that on the right side of the illustration the figure is drawn in black on the coloured ground and relieved with lines incised in the black. On the left hand the figure is left in the ground colour of the vase, while the varnish covers the background. The interior lines are drawn in the black. The two styles may be compared to a negative and positive in photography.

In the Second Vase Room we see the art of vase-painting carried on almost independently in various local potteries, all of which are after a time overpowered by the growing skill and popularity of the black-figure pottery of Athens, and only continue to exist for strictly local purposes.

The non-Attic groups occupy the Wall-cases 1-17 and 52–64 at the north end of the room (adjoining the First Vase Room), together

* Described in the Catalogue of Vases, Vol. I., Part I. (forthcoming) and Vol. II., by H. B. Walters, 1893 (24s.). A copy can be borrowed from the commissionaire.

« PreviousContinue »