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for vivid dramatic narratives and bold action in his painting. The fine kylix E 65, with Satyrs attacking Iris and Hera, appears to be the latest and most advanced of his works.
(3.) The later Attic masters (best represented in the Museum by Meidias, Pedestal 4) draw with yet greater freedom, but thereby lose the severe restraint that marks the vases of Euphronios and his fellows. In the art of Meidias, the drawing of the eye seen in profile, and of the three-quarter face, has been fully mastered. The draperies are expressed by richly composed lines, in contrast to the rather meagre conventions of older drapery. There are also rich accessory ornaments on the draperies, and incised lines in the field suggestive of landscape. But at the same time there is a decline in the interest of the subject represented. Mythological subjects are treated more loosely, with less regard for the strict traditional types, vague personifications are introduced, and scenes from daily life become more numerous.
White Athenian Vases. This room also contains the interesting and attractive series of Athenian vases painted in outline on white ground (Table-case F, Standard-case C, Wall-cases 41, 42). From early times, and more particularly at Rhodes and Naucratis, attempts had been made to avoid the limitations of the black-figure style by drawing parts of the figure in outline only, leaving its surface of the ground colour of the vase. This method was practised at Athens by several masters of the fine style (see the vases described below), but more especially in connexion with the White Athenian Lekythi (Table-case F). These are a group of vases made for the purpose of offerings at the tombs. Aristophanes (Eccl. 996) speaks of the painter who paints the lekythi with figures for the dead.' The subjects are usually connected with death and the tomb, and we often have a view of the tomb, with the vases themselves grouped about it. The designs are drawn in outline on the prepared white ground of the vase, the draperies being occasionally filled in with red, brown, green, or blue colour. The white vases are often very delicately drawn. They are marked as a rule by the same sentiment of placid and gentle melancholy which is characteristic of the Athenian sepulchral reliefs, and, like the Greek reliefs, if examined in considerable numbers, they show a lack of variety in subject and treatment.
The white sepulchral lekythi are contemporary with the Attic red-figure vases, and may be assigned generally to the fifth century B.C. Vases painted in the same manner, for use in other ways, are of less frequent occurrence, but some fine examples are shown on and near Table-case F (see p. 238).
The best vases of the transition and early period are placed in the table-cases, with which therefore we begin our detailed description.
Table-case A. Cups (kylikes) of the period of transition from the black-figure style, partly signed by painters of the group of Epictetos, and partly unsigned, but nearly akin. Among them
E 12. Kylix, signed by Pamphaios (fig. 113). On the exterior is a beautiful group (which some authorities have assigned, notwithstanding the signature, to Euphronios) of two winged figures, raising the body of a dead warrior, under the guidance of Iris. The scene suggests the Homeric incident, in which Sleep and Death carry Sarpedon to Lycia for burial, but it has also been interpreted as two wind-gods carrying Memnon, a story told only by a very late poet, Quintus of Smyrna. Technically this vase is interesting on account of the unusual method of thinning out the black glaze, to form a yellow wash. Beside it is a kylix (acquired in 1907), signed round the edge of the foot by Pamphaios, with scenes of armed warriors charging or racing.
E 3. A transition kylix, signed by Epictetos and Hischylos. The interior has a young Athenian in stal ess in black-figure style, while the exterior is red-figured.
E 2, another transition kylix, has the two styles combined in its interior.
Above this case are :
E 258. Small amphora, signed by Euxitheos, with Achilles and Briseis on the two sides.
E 15. A rendering, in the red-figure style, of the Birth of Athenè (see above, p. 219).
E 437. Jar of the kind called a stamnos, signed by Pamphaios. Heracles is wrestling with the river-god Acheloos, and seeks to break off the horn, which, according to some legends, was identical with the horn of abundance, or cornu copiae.
Pedestal 1. E 804. Vase in the form of a knucklebone, with a graceful and playful scene of girls, who seem to hover in the air. Attempts have been made to give an allegorical significance to the figures, and they have been called Breezes ; but probably the subject is merely a dance of girls, imitating the flight of birds, under the instructions of a grotesque dancing-master. From Aegina.
Table-case B. Cups and plates, in the style of Epictetos. Two kylikes, E 24, E 37, the deep cup (cotyle) E 139 (potter, Pistoxenos), and three plates, E 135, E 136, E 137, are signed by Epictetos. (See also the vase E 38 in Case J.)
Above the case are choice specimens of smaller red-figure amphorae, etc. Among them E 289, a small amphora with an interesting scene of the Judgment of Paris. The three goddesses are received by Paris, a shepherd with his sheep. On the opposite side is Hermes, who has performed his mission of conducting the goddesses to Paris, and now departs. The amphora E 290 has the curious subject of Heracles driving off Geras (Old Age), whose name is inscribed.
Above it also stand two alabasti, on one of which, acquired from Eretria, men training horses are painted in opaque white colour
on the black glaze of the vase. This process we have already noticed among the archaic vases (p. 216). In this instance much of
the white colour has disappeared, leaving only traces on the black glaze. The drawing is fine, and the subject is interesting as an
illustration of daily life in Athens about 460 B.C. The kalos-na Carystios, Moryllos, and Smicrion are incised on the black ground.
Pedestal 2. E 788. A vase of the kind called a rhyton (drinking horn), in the form of a seated Sphinx.
This vase combines in a remarkable way the red-figure decoration of the cup, with the opaque white surface (partly gilded) of the Sphinx. For her cap use has been made of the vermilion which is employed for the draperies on the white Athenian vases (Case F).
Standard-case C. The middle part of this case is mainly occupied with choice vases, acquired in 1892 at the sale of the Van Branteghem collection. These include :
E 46. A kylic in the manner of Euphronios, and inscribed with the kalos-name Leag[ro]s, which that artist is known to have employed. Subject, youth and running hare.
E 34, and another kylix more lately acquired, are both signed by Hermaios.
E 719, an unguent-bottle (alabastron), is remarkable for the wealth of its decorations. The figures are a youth and a girl. The latter is putting on her girdle, and meanwhile holds the overlap of her dress with her teeth.
D 5–10 are a remarkable group of white vases found together in Athens. Three of them bear the signature of the potter Sötades. The three kylikes are extremely fine and delicate in form, while the designs drawn on them are of great beauty.
The figure subjects are :
D 5. The rare myth of Glaucos and Polyeidos. Glaucos, son of Minos of Crete, had died by falling into a jar of honey. The seer, Polyeidos, was shut up by Minos in the boy's tomb, that he might bring him back to life. While thus imprisoned he slew a snake. A second snake appeared, bringing a herb with which it revived its companion, and by the help of the same herb Polyeidos restored the boy. The scene is a sectional view, showing both the interior and exterior of the tomb. The names are inscribed, and make the interpretation certain.
D 6. Girl standing on tiptoe to pluck an apple.
D 7. Death of Archemoros. When the heroes on their march against Thebes came to Nemea, there was drought. Hypsipylè, the nurse of the king's son, led the heroes to a spring, and in her absence the boy was killed by a serpent. He was buried by the heroes, and the Nemean games were founded in his honour. On the vase we have one of the heroes throwing a stone at a serpent coiled in a reed-brake and vomiting out smoke, and also a part of Hypsipylè.
Observe also D 11 (fig. 114). Cover of a circular box (py.cis), with a marriage procession towards an altar. The bridegroom leads the bride, escorted by a pipe-player and torch-bearers.
Pedestal 3. E 424. Athenian vase, of the latter part of the fifth century, with the subject of Peleus and Thetis. Peleus seizes Thetis, whom he has surprised bathing, and a sea-monster attacks the leg of Peleus. This is manifestly derived from the archaic method of representing the transformations of Thetis, already described ; but it may be conjectured that the artist was unaware
that the monster is Thetis herself, and not a sea beast who gives her his aid. The extensive use of colours, including white, blue, green and gilding, is remarkable.
Table-case D. Cups (kylikes) by masters of the group of
Fig. 115.—Game of Cottabos. E 70. Euphronios (see p. 230), in part signed, and in part attributed to the group on grounds of style. (For the only work by Euphronios himself, see Case J.)