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Signed by Duris. The two kylikes in this case, E 39 (athletic scenes), E 49 (banquet scenes), are signed by Duris. The kylie E 50, though not signed, appears to be in the style of the same painter. Compare the back view of a banqueter shown in E 19. Above is a wine-cooler (peycter), E 768, with fantastic revels of Seileni, also by Duris. (For another vase of Duris, see Case J.)
Signed by Chachrylion. E 40. The position of Chachrylion as one of the earliest members of this group is shown by the fact that he still uses freely the incised lines of the black-figure style. (For another vase of Chachrylion, see Case J.)
The kylikes E 64, E 70 have scenes of Symposia, and singular bands with the boots and some of the vases of the banqueters. The interior of E 70 (fig. 115) illustrates the way in which the kylir might itself be used in the game of Cottabos, which consisted in aiming the dregs of wine from the kylix at a mark (cf. F 273 in Fourth Vase Room, Case 72).
Above this case are the psycter by Duris, E 768, already mentioned, and another (E 767) of the same form, also with a scene of revel.
Pedestal 4. Hydria, signed by the later Athenian artist, Meidias. Remarkable for fine preservation, elaborate drawing, and rich compositions. Subjects : (Above) Castor and Pollux, carrying away their brides, the daughters of Leukippos. Pollux (Polydeuk(t)es) has placed Helera in his chariot, and Castor is seizing Eriphylè, while Chrysippos holds his chariot. The seated figures in the foreground are inscribed Zeus and Aphroditè, and the figure on the right is called Peitho, that is, Amorous Persuasion. A comparison, however, with older representations of the same subject shows that the figures were originally Leukippos and terrified maidens, one of whom takes refuge at an altar. We have here an example of the declining importance attached to mythological accuracy in the later Attic work. The signature (Meldias émoing ev), which, like the other inscriptions, is only faintly visible, is immediately below the palmette band round the neck.
The lower frieze falls into two main groups, the divisions being under the side handles. 1. Heracles in the garden of the Hesperides. 2. Athenian tribal heroes and others.
Table-case E. Kylikes, for the most part unsigned, by the later masters of the fine period of Attic painting.
Above is a fine bowl (cotylè), E 140, by Hieron (see 230), representing the sending forth of Triptolemos with the divine gift of wheat. Triptolemos is seated in his winged chariot between Demeter and Persephonè, and is about to receive wine for a libation from the latter. Behind Persephone is the local nymph Eleusis. On the other side of the vase are deities less nearly connected with the event. In the severely restrained and somewhat conventional drawing of this beautiful vase there is a distinct return to the archaic manner. The elaborately decorated robe of Demeter, with its bands of figures, birds and beasts, recalls the Panathenaic peplos
prepared by Athenian maidens for the image of Athenè (compare p. 35).
Above Case E are also two vases, E 284 (subject, preparations for a sacrifice and dedication of tripods), and a jar (stamnos) acquired in 1898 from the Tyszkiewicz collection (subject, Heracles and a Centaur). Both are signed by an artist Polygnotos, who must not, however, be confused with the great painter thus named.
Table-case F. Athenian vases painted in outline on a white ground (compare above, p. 231). In the table-case the vases are
all lekythi for use at the tombs. Among them the following are especially noteworthy :
D 62 (fig. 116). The formal laying out of the body of a dead youth. Three figures stand round making gestures of grief. From Eretria, whither this vase and others of the same kind are supposed to have been exported from Athens.
D 57 (fig. 116). A woman seated in a chair-very finely drawnand a companion with an ointment bottle. From Eretria.
D 54 (fig. 116). Two youths standing at a tomb. A little winged shade is seen flitting near the tomb.
D 61. Charon, who has pushed his boat to the bank among the reeds, conversing with a girl.
In the shades above are large lekuthi and other select specimens of white ware. Among them are (in the near shade): . .
D 56. Two youths at a tomb, one of whom plays on a lyre. Within the tomb, or perhaps on its lower step, are several vases, a lyre, and a wreath. From Eretria.
In the central shade :
D 2. Cup, with Aphroditè riding on the flying swan (or perhaps rather a goose), with a curling tendril and flowers in her hand. The drawing is executed with great refinement and precision.
Cup (D4), with the same white decoration as the foregoing, but of an earlier and more severe style of drawing. Athenè and Hephaestos are decking out the newly-made Pandora (here called in the inscription Anesidora).
In the further shade :
D 70, D 71. Large lekythi, with mourners at a tomb. Remarkable for the rich polychrome effects in black, green, blue, red, and yellow.
Fig. 117.-Leto, Apollo, and Artemis. E 256. D 58. A beautiful representation of a young warrior being laid in the tomb by Death and Sleep (Thanatos and Hypnos). The mythical prototype of the scene is in the Iliad (xvi.), where Sleep and Death carry Sarpedon to Lycia for burial (cf. the vase of Pamphaios, E 12, fig. 113); but, as used on a sepulchral lekythos, the subject may be supposed to have a general allegorical significance (cf. D 59, in another shade).
Pedestal 5. A bowl (lebes) in fine condition, with scenes of combat between Amazons and Attic heroes. This vase, which was at one time in the collection of Samuel Rogers, was acquired at the sale of the Forman collection in 1899.
Standard-case G. This case contains red-figure vases of the early fine style. The subjects are mainly mythological. Among them, E 440 has a curious representation of the Ship of Odysseus passing the Sirens. Odysseus is bound to the mast and rowed past the Sirens, two of whom are perched on rocks, while the third throws herself down.
Pedestal 6, Standard-case H. Large amphorae, etc., in the severe style, mainly with mythological subjects. See, for example,
the large amphora E 256 (fig. 117), with Apollo standing, playing the lyre, between his mother, Leto, and his sister, Artemis.
In the upper part of Case H are several very choice vases of the later Attic school, showing the elaborate drawing, rich ornamentation with gilding, etc., and fanciful compositions, which we have already seen on the vase of Meidias (Pedestal 4).
See, for example, the circular casket (or pyxis) E 775. On the cover (fig. 118) the Theban Pentheus (3) is torn to pieces by the frenzied Maenads in the presence of Dionysos. Round the sides of the cover two winged Cupids are yoked to the car of Aphroditè.
See also the fine drawing and decoration of E 695, a noted aryballos with a Dionysiac (?) procession, in which the chief figure, probably Dionysos, rides on a Bactrian camel ; and of E 698, with Eudaimonia and other personifications, finely drawn in the style of Meidias.
Standard-case J. The upper shelf is occupied by select kylikes, all of them choice and important examples. Beginning from the ganyway:
The kyli. E 38 is signed by Python, as potter, and Epictetos, as artist. The principal scene shows Heracles slaying Busiris, a mythical king of Egypt who practised human sacrifice if strangers came to his shores.
E 41, signed by Chachrylion, shows Theseus meeting Ariadne, and Theseus carrying off Antiope.
E 44 is a well-known work of Euphronios. In the interior a man and hetaera converse. The most interesting of the external scenes shows Heracles bringing the boar of Erymanthos to his task. master, Eurystheus. The latter takes refuge in a great earthenware jar, half sunk in the ground, while Heracles is about to hurl the body of the beast upon him.
E 48. One of the chief works of Duris (cf. p. 230). Interior : Theseus killing the Minotaur. Exterior : Labours of Theseus.
E 65. Signed by Brygos. Interior : seated warrior and woman. Exterior : drawings remarkable for vivacity and vigour, and also for their finish. (a) Iris, the divine messenger, is seized by Seileni of the following of Dionysos, who stands watching. (6) Hera is threatened by a mob of Seileni, and protected by Hermes and Heracles.
E 61. Kylix by Hieron.
The lower part of Case J contains a series of select vases of fine style. See especially E 466, Crater. Symbolical representation of the successive events of sunrise --namely, the moon setting behind a hill; Cephalos pursued by Aurora the Dawn; the stars plunginy out of sight; the sun rising in his full glory.
Pedestal 8. E 469, Crater, in a highly ornate style. The principal subject is a Battle of Gods and Giants. Five pairs of combatants are fairly preserved, the gods being Dionysos, Athenè, Zeus, Hera, and Apollo. There are also traces of a missing pair, probably including Artemis. On the neck are, obv.: the mission of Triptolemos ; rev.: a victorious lyre-player, in festal robe, standing on the musicians' platform, and greeted by two Victories.
Table-case K. Red-figure lekuthi, mainly from Sicily. In form they resemble the white Athenian lekythi, but the subjects are taken largely from mythology or from life, and it is only occasionally that they can be definitely connected with the tomb.
Above this case in shades are :
E 84. Kylix, with the series of the labours of Theseus. The interior has a band round the central medallion, contrary to the usual custom, and by a curious caprice the artist has placed the same groups in a corresponding position on the outside of the vase. Sometimes the figure is repeated as if it were seen through glass,