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and sometimes (as with Theseus attacking the sow) we see one side of his body on the interior, and the opposite side on the exterior.
Select drinking-cups and rhytons (drinking horns) modelled in peculiar forms. Among them are :
E 786 (fig. 119), Rhyton, modelled in the form of a Satyr's head and a Maenad's, placed back to back.
E 785. Seilenos, seated, supporting a horn, with a finely drawn procession of deities. The height of the horn has been reduced in such a way that the heads of the figures are lost.
A pair of lekythi shows, on the shoulder of one, Love flying with a gift, and on the shoulder of the other the recipient examining the gift.
[We turn to the wall-cases round the room.]
The vases in the wall-cases are arranged, generally speaking, so that the older Attic red-figured vases occupy the Cases 1-10, nearest to the Second Vase Room. The adjoining blocks, 11-16 and 55-60, are of a more transitional class, at the close of the sixth and beginning of the fifth centuries B.C. The two projecting central blocks, 17-24 and 47-54, contain Athenian vases of the finest style, dating from the middle of the fifth century. The cases at the South end of the room, Nos. 25–46, contain various groups of vases showing later developments of the Attic style.
The wall-cases round the Third Vase Room contain a great number of noteworthy vases, and it must suffice to call attention to a few of the most interesting Fig. 119.- Rhyton. E 786. specimens.
Cases 1-5. Early examples of amphorae and hydriae, carrying on the tradition of the panel decoration shown in the Second Vase Room. Cases 6-10, vases for the most part of a smaller size, in the early red-figure style.
It will be observed that in this group the faces are nearly always in profile. The giant in E 165 (Case 2) and the Victory in E 513 (Case 4) are rare exceptions. The eye is generally a round pupil, in a full-face eye. The drapery consists largely of straight parallel lines.
Cases 11-16. In the upper shelves are a series of small kylikes, of transitional period, and of the same general character as those in the table-cases, etc., only not signed. In Case 15, E 86 shows a curious subject of a shoemaker, in his workshop, cutting a piece of leather.
In the transitional vases the eyeball begins to be drawn in profile; the face is seldom shown otherwise than in full profile. The treatment of the drapery becomes more varied, and there is a greater play of fold.
Cases 17-24. Vases of the finest period, of the middle of the fifth century. E 453 (Case 17), a banquet scene, is finely drawn and in admirable preservation. E 316 (Case 20) has another attempted full face. E 196 (Case 23) has a rude attempt at a three-quarter face. Towards the finest period, represented by this group, the stiff parallel lines hardly occur on the drapery, which, even when treated as falling in straight folds, is handled with more feeling for texture. The profile face continues predominant, and the eyeball is at length shown completely in profile.
Cases 25, 26. Vases of polychrome ware associated with the Attic red-figure style of the latter part of the fifth century. There is a free use of white, together with a more sparing use of blue, red and green. Accessory ornaments are added in relief, with clay made into a paste, and are usually gilded, though in many cases the gilding is lost. The white forms a foundation for further line drawing. In this group, with the increasing use of white, there is a diminution in scale, and an increasing triviality in the themes. Young children, or Cupids at play, become a favourite subject.
Cases 27-30. Greek vases of various wares, for the most part excavated in the Cyrenaica, especially at Teucheira (near Benghazi in African Tripoli), by the late Mr. George Dennis. The red-figure vases are probably of Athenian fabric (of a comparatively late period) and exported from Athens. The style is florid, the drapery is drawn with complete freedom, the use of the three-quarter face occurs, and whites and blues are used freely to heighten the effects.
Cases 31-35. Red-figure vases from the tombs of Cameiros in Rhodes, which also appear to be of Athenian fabric. Among the interesting subjects are :
E 372 (Case 33). Athenè finds the boy Erichthonios looking out of his basket, which had been opened against her commands, by the daughters of Cecrops.
Case 36. A vase, acquired in 1898, from the Tyszkiewicz collection. A winner in a torch race stands at an altar, where he is crowned with a fillet by Victory. Two other torch-runners are also seen. The subject may be compared with the reliefs in the Phigaleian Room (see above, p. 62). Signed round the foot in unusually bold letters by Nikias, son of Hermocles of Anaphlystos.
Below, a recently acquired vase offers an example of a curious detail in technique. The three winged figures have no internal drawing, since the lines were superimposed on a white layer, now lost. Compare E 244 in Case 39.
Cases 37-40. Athenian vases of the end of the fourth century B.C., in a free but careless style. There is a free use of whites, and hasty drawing.
Cases 41, 42. White Athenian lekuthi, and other vases. (Compare the adjoining Table-case F.) The lekythos with an armed warrior, in Case 41, is in effect a transition from the black-figure
style. The flesh is executed in black silhouette, as in black-figure vases, while the drapery and armour are drawn in outline on the
Fig. 120. — The Birth of Athenè, as represented on a red-figure vase. E 410.
light ground. The jug D 14 (with Athenè pouring wine for Heracles) is remarkable for its fine and delicate drawing
Cases 43, 44. Athenian vases, moulded in various shapes, such as heads or busts, double heads, heads of birds and animals,
crabs' claws, and the like. The vases are moulded, and in part brilliantly coloured with red and other colours, while parts are in the normal red-figure style of decoration.
Cases 45, 46. Later vases of the fine style, for the most part of a small size, and with fine and pure drawing.
Cases 47-54. The projecting cases contain examples of the finest style, of the middle of the fifth century B.C., corresponding to those on the opposite side of the room. All the vases in these cases deserve study. The following may be noted as specially interesting.
Case 47. E 460, Crater. Å lyre-player, or perhaps a poetlaureate, in the presence of Athenè, a judge, and two Victories. This design has been made familiar as the basis of the Apotheosis of Homer' relief by Flaxman and Wedgwood. (An example may be seen on a · Pegasus Vase' in the Ceramic Room.)
Case 48. E 192, Crater. The subject is Hermes contiding the infant god Dionysos to the care of the Nymphs of Nysa.
Case 49. E 182. The birth of Erichthonios. The earthgoddess, Gaia, half emerging from the ground, holds up the earthborn child to Athenè, who receives him into a mantle which she stretches out with both hands.
E 447, Stamnos. Seilenos a prisoner before Midas. This is a subsequent incident in the story of the capture of Seilenos mentioned above (p. 216).
Case 50. E 271, Amphora. Mousaios between Terpsichore and Melousa.
Case 51. Stamnos from the Morrison collection. This vase, remarkable on account of its admirable condition, has a scene of combat between a horseman and a foot soldier, aided by an unarmed youth.
Case 52. E410, Pelike. Birth of Athenè (Fig. 120, ef. pp. 24, 219). As in the black-figure vases, Athenè is a doll-like figure springing from the head of Zeus. The principal attendant figures are, on each side, Blephaestos and Eileithyia, while beyond are Artemis, Poseidon, Victory, and others.
Cases 55-60. Transitional vases, between the early, severe red-figured group and the vases of the finest style.
Case 59. E 178, Hydria. An interesting rendering of the Judgment of Paris.
THE FOURTH VASE ROOM.* SUBJECT:-THE DECLINE OF GREEK VASE PAINTING :
LATER POTTERY. INTRODUCTION TO THE LATER RED-FIGURE VASES. The vases exhibited in this room illustrate the later developments of Greek vase painting in various directions. A large part of the room is taken up with the later red-figure vases, produced for the most part in South Italy, but it also contains various independent groups.
The survival of the black-figure style can still be traced in the series of eleven Panathenaic amphorae, exhibited on cases and pedestals in the Fourth Vase Room (see below).
Among the later red-figure vases, as illustrated in this room, it will be observed that the use of white and purple once more comes into favour. Its re-introduction was begun in the later Athenian vases, and it is now more extensively used by the Italian painters. The drawing becomes weak and loose, but at the same time there is a great facility in the rendering of all positions of the figure. As regards the choice of subjects, myths of the gods and heroic legends are no longer predominant. Where they occur they often illustrate some special literary version of the legend, and not the traditional type current among the artists. In general, the subjects chosen become more trivial. In particular, a woman at her toilet, surrounded by effeminate Erotes, is repeated again and again. Other scenes are connected with funeral rites, with the banquet, and not unfrequently with the comic stage. The red-figure vases in this room probably belong to the fourth and early part of the third centuries B.C. The practice of red-figure painting is supposed to have become extinct about the middle of the third century B.C.
Artists' signatures are rare in the later periods, and the only signed vases in the Fourth Vase Room are the following :
* The vases in this room (classes F and G) are described in the Catalogue of lases, Vol. IV., 1896 (16s.). The Roman provincial wares are described in the Catalogue of Roman Pottery, 1908 (82); and the lamps in the (forthcoming) Catalogue of Lamps, all by H. B. Walters. The Catalogues can be borrowed from the commissionaire. (The vases in class B are described in Vol. II. of the Catalogue of Vases.)