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often fluted and reeded. They are decorated with gilding on low relief, with inset relief in black, and with an occasional and sparing use of white. In Case 29 the bucket G 30 is an unusually direct imitation of a bronze vessel with movable bronze handles. Observe the lion's head in relief at the junction of the handles, and the imitation of a bronze repoussé relief immediately below.
Cases 30, 31. Drinking horns (or Rhytons) moulded in the forms of animals' heads, and having the upper parts painted in the red-figure style. One example, F 431, is arranged, by a caprice, to terminate in a head which is half a boar and half a dog.
Cases 32–36. Black ware, in which the decoration is placed by various methods upon the black. Thus the necessity is avoided of leaving the ground colour vacant.
In Case 32 the old method of using the incised line is again introduced, in combination with small patterns, painted or stamped on the soft clay.
Cases 33, 34. Plain or Hluted vases with white, red or purple patterns upon the black ground. The cup F 512, representing a
Fig. 125.-Shapes of Apulian Vases.
young huntsman, seated, with his head resting on his left hand and a dog at his side, differs in execution from the rest in having the shadows painted in by means of hatched lines. Its whole appearance is suggestive of mural painting, such as we see it at Pompeii. Early Latin inscriptions make their appearance on some of these vases, pointing to the third or second centuries B.C. See F 604, AECETIAI POCOLOM, i.e. Aequitiae poculum, and the fragmentary cup, VESTAI POCOLO, i.e. Vestae poculu(m).
Cases 37-41. Roman wares, more fully described below, p. 253.
Cases 42, 43. Drinking-horns (or Rhytons) moulded in the forms of animals' heads (cf. Cases 30, 31). In this group red-figure painting is not employed.
Cases 44, 45. Examples of various late and local fabrics, for the most part based upon Greek vase painting. Below, specimens of Egyptian provincial wares of the Roman and later periods.
Cases 46, 47. Vases with figures painted in red body colour upon the black ground. The effect of a red-figure vase is thus attained by a simplified method. The incised line is used for the
internal lines of the red figures, and we thus have a reversion in this respect to the methods of black-figure vase painting.
Above and below, eccentric imitations of Greek vases.
Cases 46-49. Vases of Lucanian and Apulian fabrics (see above, p. 246), all, however, marked by a common system of decoration, consisting of an ivy branch on the upper panel, and offering little variety or interest in the choice of subjects.
Cases 50-59. Vases in the florid late Apulian style, marked by the choice of trifling subjects, monotonously repeated, and by a great variety of ornate shapes. Many new forms, of which a few characteristic examples are given in the annexed diagram (fig. 125), are developed and multiplied.
Cases 60-65. The principal vases in these cases represent offerings at tombs. (Compare above, Pedestal 9.) Within a small architectural structure we have a subject painted mainly in white, which is probably the actual tomb-relief (compare in particular F 352, fig. 126, with many of the Athenian reliefs), and round it conventionalized figures of mourners and persons bringing offerings.
Cases 66-68. Selected South Italian vases with mythological subjects. Among them are:
F 479. Crater, with the infant Heracles strangling the snakes,
in the presence of numerous deities and of his mother Alcmena. The scene corresponds to a picture of Zeuxis as described by Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxxv. 63). F 270. Crater from Apulia. Orpheus in Hades. Orpheus, known by his lyre, holds Cerberus by a chain, and stands near a terminal figure, perhaps Apollo ; Eurydicè is seated behind him. The other figures are, in the lower row, a youth and pedagogue; in the upper row, deities-namely, Pan, Hermes, Aphroditè with Eros.
Cases 69-72 (middle shelf). Subjects connected with the later Italian comic stage (cf. p. 170). The figures are grotesque. In some cases (as F 189, and F 124) the stage buildings and apparatus are roughly indicated.
Cases 71, 72 also contain five subjects connected with the game of Cottabos (cf. above, p. 235).
ROMAN AND PROVINCIAL POTTERY AND LAMPS.
In the south-west corner of the Fourth Vase Room (Wall-cases 37-41, 44, 45 (below), and Table-case F) an exhibition has been arranged, so far as space permits, of the clay lamps, and of the Roman and provincial potteries.
The Roman wares found in Britain are grouped with the other Britanno-Roman objects in the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities, but all will be found catalogued together in the Catalogue of Roman Pottery.
Cases 39-40. A series of vases and fragments, in fine red clay covered with a red glaze, usually known as Arretine ware. They
are derived from the famous potteries of Arretium (Arezzo), and must be dated from the middle of the second century B.C. onwards for a century and a half. A choice example is the fine vase L 54,
with figures symbolical of the Seasons. It was found at Capua, and bequeathed by Mr. Felix Slade. Another example is the cantharos shown in fig. 127.
The first step in the manufacture of these vases was to prepare a stamp. See the stamp of a figure of Spring (L 91) worked in clay,
with a handle at the back. (For other stamps see p. 164.) The stamps were next impressed on the inside of a mould, in such combinations as seemed to make a satisfactory design. Thus in the
vase L 54, mentioned above, two of the Seasons, namely, Spring and Summer, occur twice, since six repetitions of a figure were needed to decorate the circuit of the vase. The column, with mask above and basket at its foot, is repeated six times from a single stamp.
Cases 37-38. The later red wares, formerly known to antiquaries as Samian ware, on account of an assumed connexion with the once famous red pottery of Samos, have, in fact, nothing to do with that island. For the most part they are derived from Gaul, especially from the sites known as La Graufesenque and Lezoux. Panels with figure-subjects, animals and the like are repeated in combination with rough decorative wreaths, scrolls or panels, such as fig. 128.
Fig. 130. A small group of vases in the lower Mould for a clay lamp. part of the
comes from Roman potteries of the second to third century A.D. on the Rhine. Mottoes of a convivial character are painted in opaque white on a dull black ground. Thus M 142 (fig. 129) has the inscription Da Vinum (Give me wine').