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and some of the lions were used to adorn the castle of St. Peter, and were thus preserved.
In 1846, Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, then British Ambassador at the Porte, obtained a firman from the Sultan authorizing the removal of the reliefs from the castle, where they had been seen from time to time by travellers, and presented them to the British Museum. Attention was thus drawn to the subject of the Mausoleum, and in 1856 the late Sir C. Newton, who was then acting as Vice-Consul at Mytilene, was empowered to search for the site, and to carry on excavations on behalf of the Foreign Office.
Notwithstanding the success of Sir C. Newton's excavations, materials are still wanting for a complete restoration of the Mausoleum. Six of the numerous attempts that have been made are illustrated in figs. 39, 40.
By a comparison of Pliny's description (N. H., xxxvi., 30) with
the extant remains, it is ascertained that the Mausoleum consisted of a lofty basement, on which stood an oblong edifice surrounded by thirty-six Ionic columns and surmounted by a pyramid of twentyfour steps. This was crowned by a four-horse chariot group in white marble. The total height is given by Pliny as 140 feet, according to the usually received text; by Hyginus (fab. 223) as 80 feet. The edifice which supported the pyramid has by most authorities been assumed to have been encircled by the frieze richly sculptured in high relief, and representing a battle of Greeks and Amazons. Cases occur, however, in the Ionic order of Asia Minor in which the sculptured frieze was omitted, and possibly this was the case with the Mausoleum. Remains have also been found of three other friezes, but their places on the building have not yet been ascertained. The monument was further adorned with statues and groups, and with a number of lions, which may have stood round the edifice as guardians of the tomb. The material of the sculptures is Parian marble, and the whole structure was richly ornamented with colour.
At the end of the room the following attempted restorations are exhibited :(1) Sir C. Wren's design based on Pliny. This drawing (by Goodchild)
is based on a rough sketch by Wren, in the Library of the Royal
Society. (2) A model by C. R. Cockerell, based on Pliny, and the dimensions of
the frieze, but made before the excavation. (3) A drawing (by F. Cockerell) developing a sketch by C. R. Cockerell,
also made before the excavation. (4) A restoration by Newton and Pullan, giving the results of the excava
tions, but taking an impossible dimension for the substructure
(cf. Fig. 39). (5) A drawing, showing the restoration of the late J. J. Stevenson. A view is also shown of the castle of St. Peter at Budrum.
Architectural Remains.-980. The colonnade of the Mausoleum is represented by an Ionic column (Plate X.), which has been erected on the West side of the room (but without its base), surmounted by original pieces of the architrave, frieze and cornice, and showing part of a coffered ceiling stretching back to the wall of the room, the lacunaria or coffers (sunk panels) being richly ornamented. On the opposite side of the room are the base and lowermost drum of the column, which are necessarily separated, for want of head room. In order to obtain the complete height, the upper part of the shaft, less about three inches, should be placed upon the base.
981-985. Various architectural fragments from the Mausoleum, including (981) an Ionic capital from one of the angles of the colonnade. Its position is shown by the volutes occurring on two adjacent sides. Compare the column of the Erechtheion in the Elgin Room.
986. (Near North-East Corner.) A part of the cornice (compare 980) with the lions' heads and a frieze of palmettes and acanthus.
987. A group of the steps of the pyramid that crowned the colonnade. The upper step belonged to the top of the pyramid. The roughly worked depression on its upper surface was made for the insertion of a part of the chariot group. A fragment with a hoof of one of the horses has been inserted to show the arrangement.
The Chariot Group.-1000-1004. In the middle of the room the sculptures which are believed to be a part of the chariot group on the top of the pyramid, have been arranged, as far as possible, in the relative positions that they originally occupied (Plate XI.). It is not explicitly stated by Pliny that statues stood in the quadriga, but when excavated by Sir C. Newton, the remains of the chariot group and of the two figures were found together, lying in a confused heap, as they had fallen.
1000. Mausolus, a majestic portrait statue. On his left side projecting folds of the drapery have been chiselled away. This is thought to have been done when the statue was being adjusted to the side of the chariot.
1001. Colossal female figure, probably Artemisia. The figure was at first described as a goddess, but the proportions compared with those of Mausolus, and the portrait character of the head are better suited to Artemisia. The head-dress is also of a portrait character.
The arms are broken below the elbows. Both were advanced, with the right forearm lowered, and the left forearm raised. Their position corresponds sufficiently with that of a figure holding reins, when the horses are at rest. There are holes for a bronze attachment on the drapery below the left arm.
1002. Part of a colossal horse, with the original bronze bridle. 1003. Hinder half of a similar horse. 1004. One wheel of the chariot, restored from several fragments.
Sculptures in Relief.:-The works in relief found on the site of the Mausoleum consist of portions of three distinct friezes, viz., the supposed frieze of the Order, the Centaur frieze, and the Chariot frieze, and of a series of reliefs in panels. Of these the most important is the frieze of the Order, that is the frieze that surmounted the exterior colonnade.
The Frieze of the Order (?).-1006-1031 (Plate XII.). Of this frieze the British Museum possesses seventeen slabs, twelve of which were removed from the castle of St. Peter in 1846, and four more were discovered in 1856-59 on the site of the Mausoleum.
One other slab usually assigned to this frieze, no. 1022, was formerly in the Villa di Negro at Genoa, to which place it was probably transported from Budrum by one of the Knights of St. John, some time in the fifteenth or early in the sixteenth century, and was purchased from the Marchese Serra in 1865. The entire length of these slabs is 85 feet 9 inches. The slabs do not follow in regular sequence, but are taken from various parts of the series ; nor have we any evidence as to the sides of the building which they occupied except in the case of those found in situ (1013-1016), which are probably from the eastern side, that is from the side assigned by Pliny to the sculptor Scopas. The following is a recent attempt to assign the slabs to the four sculptors : Scopas, 1013-5, 1025; Timotheos, 1006-8, 1010-2, 1016-7; Bryaxis, 1009, 1019 [and 1022]; Leochares, 1018, 1020-1. (Wolters & Sieveking, Jahrb. d. Arch. Inst. xxiv., p. 171.)
The subject of this frieze is the war of the Greeks and Amazons. The Amazons are represented some on foot, others on horseback. Their weapons are the battle-axe and the sword. From the action of several of those on horseback, it is evident that they were represented using spears or bows : but as no trace of these weapons appears at present on the marble, they may have been painted on the ground of the relief; or in some cases made of metal and attached to the marble.
All the Greeks are on foot ; some of them are represented naked, others wear a tunic reaching to the knees, or a cloak twisted round
the arm. Their weapons are the sword and the javelin, together with helmets and round bucklers.
In the composition, the groups and figures are disposed in more open order than in the Parthenon and Phigaleian friezes, leaving larger spaces of the background free. The relief is exceedingly high, the limbs being constantly sculptured in the round ; bold foreshortening is sometimes used. The outlines are marked with extreme force, and in some of the slabs the figures are singularly elongated in their proportions.
1008. One of the male figures on this slab is about to strike with his club an Amazon who has fallen on both knees, and whom he drags towards him by her hair. He wears a lion's skin knotted in front, and though the face is nearly obliterated, the outline of a beard may be traced ; it is therefore probable that this figure represents Hercules. 1010. The mediaeval inscription which has been added to the shield of one of the figures has not been deciphered. In 1013 the left leg of the kneeling warrior is an example of bold foreshortening. The apparent inequality in the length of the thighs is due to an optical deception. In 1015 is a mounted Amazon, whose horse is galloping to the right. The rider has turned round so as to face the horse's tail, and is drawing her bow, after the Parthian fashion, at an enemy behind her.
1016. The position of the horse and rider greatly resembles that of the equestrian group in the round (no. 1045). 1017. This fragment had somehow found its way to the Imperial Museum at Constantinople, and was presented by His Majesty the Sultan. 1022. This slab was purchased from the Marchese Serra of Genoa (see above). The upper moulding has been cut away, and other retouchings have been made- doubtless by an Italian restorer. On the ground of these differences the connexion of the slab with the frieze has been questioned, but probably without valid reason. 1023. The principal fragments of these figures were found at Rhodes.
Centaur Frieze.--1032-1035. Slabs and fragments of a frieze with a battle of Greeks and Centaurs. The original position of this frieze on the building is uncertain. It has sometimes been considered to be the frieze of the Order, but for this its mouldings are less suitable than those of the Amazon frieze.
Chariot Frieze.—1036. Nearly a hundred fragments were found of this frieze, which evidently represented a chariot race. Out of the fragments about eleven chariot groups have been partly made up.
1037. (On the West wall.) Charioteer from the chariot frieze (where it is represented by a cast). Of the chariot a part of the wheel and part of the rim of the rail only have been preserved ; in the centre of the nave a hole is drilled for a metal ornament. The charioteer's body is thrown forward, and his countenance and attitude express the eagerness of the contest. The features, which are beautifully sculptured, have an anxious look.
Groups in Panels.-1038-1042. Fragments of groups in relief, in panels. The destination of the panels is uncertain. In the restored Order, no. 980, they have been taken to be the covering slabs of the coffers of the ceiling of the colonnade. The subjects are too fragmentary to be made out with certainty. In no. 1041 the subject may, perhaps, be Theseus overthrowing the robber Skiron.
MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURES FROM THE MAUSOLEUM. Besides the chariot group and the sculptures in relief already described, the site of the Mausoleum yielded numerous sculptures that probably formed part of its decorations, though they cannot be assigned to definite places. Among these note especially : .
1045. Torso of an equestrian figure, much mutilated. The rider sits a bare-backed prancing horse ; he wears close-fitting trousers, a dress characteristic of Asiatics generally in ancient art, over which falls a tunic with sleeves. The left hand holds the reins with a firm nervous grip, strongly though roughly rendered by the sculptor. The upper part of the rider was a separate piece.
Notwithstanding the great mutilation which this torso has received, it must be considered an admirable example of ancient sculpture. The body of the horse is a masterpiece of modelling: the rearing movement affects the whole frame. Equal skill is shown in the representation of the firm, but easy seat of the rider.
1051. Colossal female head, with the hair arranged in the manner of the Artemisia. This head is remarkable for the largeness and simplicity of treatment, in the manner of Scopas.
The Lions.-1075, etc. A numerous series of lions was found, partly in the castle of St. Peter, and partly in the excavations. They are all posed in a similar and formal fashion, with their heads turned either to right or left. They were evidently disposed, with architectural symmetry, as emblematic guardians of the tomb, but their position cannot be determined.
ALABASTER VASE. 1099. An alabaster vase, inscribed with the name of Xerxes. This inscription is in four languages, namely, Persian, Median, Assyrian and Egyptian, and each is translated . Xerxes the great King. This vase is one of a group, of which several examples are extant. It is conjectured that they were distributed as royal presents by the Persian monarchs, and that the specimen found in the Mausoleum may have been a valued heirloom in the family of Mausolus.
LION FROM CNIDOS. 1350. In the middle of the room, behind the chariot group, is a Colossal Lion (Plate XIII.), which was found lying overturned on a lofty promontory, about three miles to the east of Cnidos. On the site where it was lying were the remains of a Greek tomb, which consisted of a square basement surrounded by engaged columns of