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with the name of an early sculptor, Terpsicles, as well as with the names of the dedicators.
381xivдата за топу N43 19
Ο Αναξιμάνδρου παίδες του Μανδρομάχου ανέθεσαν. εποίησε δε
Tepülkins. • The sons of Anaximander, son of Mandromachos, dedicated (this).
Terpsicles made it.'
These inscriptions are written boustrophedon, that is, alternately from left to right, and from right to left, like the path of ploughing oxen.
In these inscriptions the older form of the Greek Eta, 8, is used in nos. 10 and 17, and the later form, H, in no. 14. This change is believed to have already taken place by the time of Croesus (about 561-546 B.C. : see below, p. 82). The older group must therefore be anterior to the middle of the sixth century B.C.
The later group probably belongs to the latter half of the century, though we cannot fix the superior limit of time with precision.
No. 18. This figure has sometimes been described as a lionsphinx, but there is nothing distinctive, and it is probably a lion, treated in a highly conventional way.
80-97. Sculptures from Xanthos.—The following sculptures are the archaic portion of the collection of sculptures from Xanthos, a town some ten miles from the sea, in the south-west of Lycia. They were discovered in the successive journeys of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Charles Fellows, who visited Lycia in 1838, 1840, and 1842. In the year last mentioned a naval expedition was employed to ship the Xanthian marbles for transport to England.
The people of Lycia were a non-Hellenic race, and in 545 B.C. they were conquered by Persia. The sculptures, however, of Xanthos are distinctly archaic Greek works, though not without traces of Oriental influence (cf. no. 86). In the most important remains, especially in the Harpy Tomb (no. 94) we trace the manner of the Ionian School of Asia Minor, whose chief character: istics are an exaggerated fulness of form and languor of expression, which may be contrasted with the muscular vigour of the Doric sculpture, and the delicate refinement observed in a part of early Attic work.
The greater number of this important group of archaic sculptures may be assigned to the period shortly preceding the Persian conquest.
80. Sepulchral chest, adorned with reliefs on the four sides. This tomb was made of a single block of hard, coarse limestone. It was found by Fellows in its original position, on a shaft, which
appears to have been about 9 feet high (see fig. 3). On the top of the chest there is a rebate to receive the lid, which was formed of a separate block and has not been found. On the sides are subjects in low relief, namely, a warrior and horseman with attendant ; a man
contending with a lion, and a seated figure. The animal groups in high relief at the ends are difficult to distinguish. At one end is a lion. Between the paws of the lion is seen the head of a bull, which has been overthrown, and is seized by the throat. At the other end is a lioness playing with cubs. A cub is seen, with its forepaws across the paws of the lioness; a second cub lies on its back, over the first. There is some reason for thinking that this monument is the oldest of the Lycian sculptures.
81. Frieze of Satyrs and animals, found built into the walls of the Acropolis at Xanthos. The Satyrs are forced into strange crouching positions, since the inexperienced artist has not understood the necessary relations of the height of the figures and the height of the frieze.
82. Frieze of cocks and hens. Eight cocks and five hens represented as standing, walking, picking up food, or fighting. The work, which originally contained more birds, is carefully studied from nature. The cock had been brought to the West from Persia no long time before the date of this relief (about 550 B.C.).
86. A frieze representing a procession moving from left to right. The company consists of persons in chariots, on horseback, and on foot. The principal figure appears to be the venerable old man, who is seated in the second chariot, and holds a flower and, perhaps, also a cup. In various details, such as the treatment of the crests and tails of the horses, and the use of whisks by the standing figures, we are reminded of the East, and are led to infer that the relief is later than the Persian conquest. It is clear from the oblong holes that occur at intervals that beams must once have projected from the lower margin, and from the treatment of the holes it is seen that this was the original intention of the work. It is probable that the frieze belonged to a tomb, and represented a funeral procession. On the left is a slab (no. 87), perhaps from another tomb, on which, between two standing figures, we see the foot of a corpse, laid out on a couch.
89, 90, 91, 92. Gable ends of a tomb. On each side of the door ways is a seated Sphinx. Above the lintel are two lions at one end. Probably a similar group was also worked on the other end. Like many of the Lycian sculptures, these reliefs were brilliantly coloured when they were discovered, with red, blue, yellow, etc., but only faint traces can now be detected.
93. Gable end of a tomb. In the centre of the relief is a low column, with an Ionic capital, of peculiar form. A Siren stands to the front, on the column, and on each side are seated figures of old men. This relief, like those above mentioned, retained its colouring when discovered.
94. The Harpy Tomb.-The monument known as the Harpy Tomb is one of the most important and elaborate works of archaic art that have survived.
The four reliefs, as may be seen in the illustration (fig. 4), form the sides of a sepulchral chamber, placed on a high shaft, and
surmounted by a massive coping-stone. The internal walls of the chamber were painted with Christian frescoes, indicating that at one time it had been occupied by some Stylites, or hermit living on a column.
1. West Side. - This relief is divided into two unequal parts by a small doorway which formed the entrance to the tomb. The door
way must have been filled up with a slab of stone. Above, the space is filled by a relief of a cow giving suck to a calf. Two stately female forms, who ought perhaps to be regarded as seated side by side, are enthroned. To one of these, three women approach as if bringing offerings.
2. North Side.--An old man, seated on a chair, receives a crested helmet which is offered to him by a young warrior.
At each side of this group, but disconnected from it, are figures forinerly known as Harpies, from which the monument derived its name. Their type is rather that of a Siren, while their character is that of a Genius of death. In their arms and talons each gently carries a diminutive figure, probably a deceased person, who makes a gesture, as of affection.
At the right corner of the relief a draped figure crouches on the ground in an attitude of deep grief, and looks up to the flying figure above.
3. East Side.--A venerable bearded man is seated on a throne. A boy offers a cock, and three other persons stand in attendance.
4. South Side.- Another enthroned figure is attended by a person holding a dove, and with the right hand raised in a gesture of adoration. On each side of the main group, but disconnected from it, are the winged figures with their burdens, as already described.
Interpretations.-On the first discovery of these sculptures they were supposed to represent a definite myth, the rape of the daughters of Pandareos, king of Lycia, by the Harpies, but for many reasons this view is untenable. It is obvious from the * Harpies, from the figures that they carry, and the crouching mourner, that the subjects are connected with death and the tomb. The enthroned personages have often been interpreted as deities connected with the lower world, such as Demeter and Persephone on the west side. It seems more probable, however, that they are figures of the heroified dead, receiving offerings from the living. If that is the intention of the reliefs, it is analogous to that of many other grave monuments.
Style and Period. - In the Harpy Tomb we have a fine example of the work of the Ionian School, which may be placed soon after the middle of the sixth century. The sculptor, while wanting ease of execution, has given great care to the decorative accessories. Note on the west side the Sphinx, ram's head, and swan's head of the thrones, and on the east side the recumbent Triton.
The reliefs were also elaborately painted, though to-day the colour can only be inferred from the inequalities of the surface of the marble, due to the unequal protecting powers of the different colours. There were an egg and tongue pattern on the lower moulding, a maeander or key pattern on parts of the upper moulding, and palmettes on two of the thrones. Ornaments were also added in bronze, for which rivet-holes remain in the marble.
130. Fragment from Delos.-Fragment of a foot of a colossal statue of Apollo, together with a part of the plinth in the same block. This fact is recorded on one of the still extant inscriptions on the base at Delos, “I am of the same stone, both statue and base. The other inscription, · The Naxians, to A pollo,' shows that this is a fragment of a colossal statue dedicated by the Naxians