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what shall we do in this or that case? Whoever attempted to answer such a question as that? Whoever had just such another case? Is there any gentleman in this room who would say what he would have done in such a case, when it came up in another man's experience; an experience that you never had? The question is one of general principles, not of special cases. I say every child is entitled to the full benefit of the school-no, not that, Mr. Chairman-the country is entitled to the benefit of the training of that child, unless he is a moral nuisance, to be cut off from the school for its moral health, and not for his reformation. I will not admit, nor will any gentleman in this room admit, that any child can be so disobedient, or so disorderly, as to gain a greater influence in the school than he. There never was a child in my school whose influence overbalanced mine, and I don't think there ever will be. When you cut a boy off you admit that he has more influence than you have, and that you are unable to counteract it.

Mr. HINSDALE:—How about the street and alley influence of those you admit should be cut off.

Mr. HANCOCK:- This is all very theory, but the teachers must be protected also. I do not believe that the teacher should be subjected to a series of annoyances and insults because the children are upheld in it by their parents.

Mr. STEVENSON:-I endorse the remarks of Mr. Forbes. We ought to understand to what the power of suspension extends. The teacher or superintendent has no such power. This power is given only to the Board of Education. I am glad it is so guarded. I think it very danger. ous to place such power in the hands of any one man.

Mr. HANCOCK :-It is a very serious matter to have a bad pupil in school.

Mr. STEVENSON :-I grant it, but I believe that such a pupil can and ought to be controlled. I believe in working for the reformation of the pupil but not in suspension.

Mr. Coy:-I do believe in suspension. I have never seen a boy that eould not be controlled, but I have those that were not controlled. There might have been a man in some corner of the world that could control them. I say any disorderly pupil should be suspended.

Mr. Cook believed that more harm than good resulted from suspension; that there was no purer moral atmosphere in the world than we find in the public schools of Ohio. The teacher should use his pupils as he would wish a child of his own to be used. In those schools where there are the most suspensions there is the poorest discipline. When pupils are unfit to be in school, they should be sent to the reform school. Me did not believe in suspension as a means of discipline.

Mr. WELSH, of Lancaster :-What do we mean by suspension.

Mr. FORBES :-I understand that suspension means the existence still of relations to the school.

Mr. SPALDING, of Gallipolis :-I think we all agree that there are certain schools in which there are pupils who ought to be got rid of, but I believe that we should be very careful how the power is exercised.

On motion of E. T. Tappan, Messrs. Stevenson, Stuntz, Lukens, and Hancock were appointed a committee to report upon the subject at some future meeting.

The Committee on Nominations reported as officers of the Section for the next year

GEO. W. WALKER of Lima, President, M. R. ANDREWs of Steubenville, Secretary, R. W. STEVENSON of Columbus, E. F. MOULTON of Warren, Executive Committee. E. E. SPALDING of Gallipolis, The report was adopted. E. H. Cook of Columbus, made a verbal statement in reference to the proceedings of the Ohio Teachers' Association and Superintendents' Association, that had been published in pamphlet form, number on hand for different years and the price for which they would be furnished bound together.

E. T. Tappan of Gambier, Chairman of a Committee appointed by the Association of Ohio Colleges to consider the Relation of High Schools and Colleges, read a letter from the Association requesting the Ohio Teachers' Association to appoint a committee to confer with them at their next meeting in Cincinnati.

REMARKS OF MR. TAPPAN. The Association of Colleges of Ohio at the meeting at Delaware, appointed a committee to prepare a report showing what High Schools in Ohio are preparing students for college. This committee consists of E. T. Tappan of Gambier, L. D. McCabe of Delaware, and J. B. Helwig of Springfield.

At the meeting at Delaware there was an evident disposition on the part of the College nen to act in connection with the high schools. I believe that the gap between them ought not to exist. The best course of study for the high schools, best in itself, without reference to a future college course, would include such a preparation in language as would prepare boys for college. The best curriculum for the colleges, best in itself, would defer Greek till boys enter college (applause). You are pleased at that, and the college men are pleased when it is said the high schools ought to have languages taught so early as to prepare students fully for college. Which party must move?

Mr. HANCOCK :-Let both parties move.

Mr. TAPPAN:—The colleges cannot now do that which would be the best. If Greek is deferred there must be an equivalent, but it must not be mathematics. This science is no equivalent for a classic study, unless you teach it in the language of Euclid. The two are so different that one cannot take the place of the other in a good course of study. The equivalent for a language is a language. If the modern languages could



be taught at an early age when children can best learn to pronounce, that would be the best course. That is impracticable, except in: one or two cities. That which can be done generally is to begin Latin at an early age. If children are to be taught to speak the modern languages, they should learn to pronounce at an age not later than six or seven years. Latin is not to be spoken, and the instruction in it may be later—as soon as they begin studying grammar theoretically. When they are old enough for English grammar they are old enough for beginning Latin.

Let teachers understand this subject. The time to begin the study of the classic languages is not after years have been spent in English Gram

If the teachers in our high schools and grammar schools may be permitted to organize Latin classes at the time stated (about the sixth year of school life), boys may have four years of instruction in Latin by the time they think of leaving home for college. This four years of Latin would be an equivalent for the Latin and Greek required by many of the colleges of Ohio. At present, these colleges are compelled to: prepare the students in their own preparatory schools, after students are advanced in all studies except the classics, and therefore the preparation must be in both Greek and Latin at the same time. However, let the matter be decided without any reference to colleges, and merely according to what is itself the best course of study for the schools.

There is a common prejudice against the study of any foreign language, particularly of the ancient classics. Now the study of Latin is of more practical use to every man and to every woman, in their every-day life, and in their professional work, when they read, when they talk, when they write, and when they think, than the study of geometry or algebra.

Let this fact in the science of education become generally known and there will remain but little difficulty with this subject. In the words of Dr. Harris in his

paper on A Course of Study” at Baltimore last year, “To slight the science of language in a course of study, is to insult the object of all study itself.”

In that very able paper, Dr. Harris asks the following question, and shows why it should be answered in the affirmative:

“Is the complete course of study the same for culture, and business, and the professions, so that whatever section of it be cut off from the beginning furnishes the best course up to that point, whether regarded as preparatory to the continuation of the course of study, or as a completed course fitting one for business ? "

If that be so (and in my opinion the principle is fully established), there ought not to be any hitch between the work of the colleges and that of the high schools.

Prof. De Wolf, of Western-Reserve College, said that the matter was practicable, and that it was now done at the college at Delaware. He claimed if pupils were ready for college when they came from the high schools many more would enter.

He then moved that a committee of five be appointed to meet the College Association as requested. Committee-E. H. Cook, of Columbus, Coy, of Cincinnati, Avery, of Cleveland, Hancock, of Dayton, and Johnson, of Avondale. Adjourned.

G. N. CARRUTHERS, Secretary.

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Hall of Put-in-Bay House, 91 A. M., Wednesday, July 4, 1877. The Association was called to order at 9 o'clock Wednesday morning by H. M. Parker, of Elyria, Chairman of the Executive Committee.

Prayer was offered by President I. W. Andrews of Marietta.

On motion of J. F. Lukens of Kent, Supt. J. J. Burns of St. Clairsville, and Supt. T. C. Flanegin of Pomeroy, were chosen Assistant Secretaries. A. G. Farr of Columbus, was chosen Treasurer, pro tem.,

and Supt. J. H. Lehman of Canton, Assistant Treasurer.

J. M. Goodspeed of Athens, was elected as third member of the Committee on Communications between teachers and those wishing to employ teachers.

On motion of Alexander Forbes of Cleveland, the President appointed a committee of three gentleman consisting of Alex. Forbes, E. T. Tappan of Gambier, and Pres. B. A. Hinsdale of Hiram, to wait upon and to extend an invitation to Senator Davis of Illinois, a guest upon Middle Bass Island, to participate in the proceedings of the Association.

President Findley of Akron, delivered the following

INAUGURAL ADDRESS: FELLOW-TEACHERS:—My first duty in appearing before you to-day is to make grateful acknowledgement of the honor you have conferred in calling me to preside over your deliberations. Conscious unworthiness heightens my sense of gratitude.

I shall depart, somewhat, from the time-honored custom which requires of the presiding officer a formal opening address. I shall detain you from the consideration of the important questions which your executive committee bring to your attention by only a few brief remarks.

We have met for the first time in this new century of our national life, and on this national anniversary, to exchange fraternal greetings, to take counsel together once more concerning the work which engages our minds and hearts, and to gather fresh courage and zeal for future effort. It is now thirty years since a few earnest spirits met together at the place of my present residence and organized the Ohio Teachers' Association. It is not at all probable that Andrews and Lord, and Cowdery and Harvey, and their associates, realized the power of the influences they were setting in motion, when, in the year 1847, they issued a call for a convention to be held at Akron for the purpose of organizing a State Teachers' Association. In the few years of its existence this Association has accomplished much for the cause of education in our State. It has given direction to legislation, and has been, in a great measure the former of public opinion in school matters. It has also been the source of light and inspiration to the great army of teachers throughout the State. I acknowledge my own indebtedness in this regard. The meeting of this Association held at Dayton in 1853, kindled in me an enthusiasm which has not yet died out.


The influence of this organization has been felt far beyond the limits of our State. He who, in coming time, gets at the marrow of our country's history, will there find the unmistakable impress of those patient, self-sacrificing heroes who have built up our noble free-school system; and it is safe to predict that there will appear traces not indistinct of some who are before me to-day. When we call to mind the worthies of our State, living and dead, who have consecrated their lives to this cause, and remember their struggles in its behalf; and when we think of the proud position our State occupies to-day in all interests, material, social, and political, as well as educational, we are profoundly grateful to Him whose we are, and by whose favor and blessing these results have been attained.

The commonwealth we represent is third of American States in population, and second to none in commanding influence in national affairs, and to us, the teachers of her youth, belongs the honor and responsibility of holding the most sacred and important trust she commits to any hands. In view of this, what exalted character, what consecration, what untiring effort, what burning enthusiasm, should abound in us.

But it is not in felicitation at past success or present attainment that our minds should be chiefly engaged to-day. There probably never was a time in the history of public education in this country, when clear heads, earnest hearts, and strong hands were more needed than now. There are still many unsolved problems in education, some of which seem to demand solution in the near future. There are, indeed, eminent and thoughtful men who believe that the time is fast approaching when the friends of free education in this country will be compelled to join issue in a final conflict with its enemies. I am not one whose mind is filled with dark forebodings or gloomy apprehensions concerning the future of our common schools. There are, it is true, unmistakable signs of coming conflict; indeed, I may say the battle has already begun. But I have no doubt in regard to the issue. Our public free-school system will come out of the contest stripped, it may be, of some of its tinsel and embroidery, but fairer and stronger than ever before. The very agitation which causes alarm will insure that vigilance and activity which are the best safeguard of all our free institutions. The American com. mon school is an original American institution, formed and fashioned by the genius of the American people; and one of the most cheering signs of the times is the patience and persistence with which the whole people move on to the upbuilding and perfecting of this glorious institution in the face of clamor and opposition. The enlightened masses of this glorious republic have never faltered for an instant in their support of free education for all her children, and my strong conviction is that they never will do so.

It does not bode evil for the schools that everything pertaining to the instruction and training of youth is now passing under review, and is

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