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cil and pen, and with plain tinting and shading, to follow just such a course as ought to be followed by an architect's apprentice. · It may be wellito say the following series by experts have been added to Krusi's Common-School Course in Drawing :- A Series of Flat Designs, by Chas. Kastner, Lowell Professor of Design, Mass. Institute of Technology; Al Series of Relief Designs, by 8. E. Cleaves, Professor of Drawing and Designing, Cornell University ; A Zoological Series, by Edward S. Morse, Professor of Natural History, Salem, Mass.; A Series of Elementary Mechanical Drawing, był H. N. Mudge, Instructor in Mechanical Drawing, Mass. Institute Technology; A Series (the one above described] upon Elementary Architecture, by Chas. Babcock, Professor of Architecture, Cornell University'; 'A Series upon Machinery, by John E. Sweet, Professor of Applied Mechanics, Cornell University: ODDS WITH THE ENEMY. An Amateur Drama. In five acts. By T. S. Deni

son. Price 20 cts. Address the author at De Kalb, Ill. See advertisement. This drama is published in a 40-page duodecimo pamphlet, with all needful directions as to the manner of acting. Schools dramatically inclined might find it just suited to their wants. THE HISTORY OF LIBERTY. By John F. Aiken. New York: A. S. Barnes " & Co. 1877. Pages 163. Price $1 postpaid by mail.

This little book is a paper read before the New-York Historical Society, February 6, 1876. It contains in a small space the leading facts connected with the growth of liberty. The appendix is full of selected notes of great interest. The work can be turned to excellent account by teachers and especially by teachers of history. LE PETIT PRÉCEPTEUR; or First Step to French Conversation. For the

use of young beginners. By F. Grandineau, Late French Master to her most gracious Majesty Queen Victoria. Forty-seventh edition. A. & Barnes & Co., New York, Chicago, and New Orleans. 1876. Pages 176. Price by mail 75 cents. LE PETIT GRAMMAIRIEN; or the young beginner's first step to French

Reading. A sequel, to Le Petit Precepteur. By 7. Pagliandini, Head Master of St. Paul's. Same publishers." Pages 207. Price by mail 75cts. Der Kleine LEHRER; or First Steps to German Conversation. For the ; use of

, youņg þegjnners. On the plan of Le Petit Precepteur. Fourth edition revised. Same publishers. Pages 174. Price by mail 75 cents. These little books are all 18mós. One plan characterizes all. We have been delighted with them. A mastery of them will set the learner well on his way to the learning of French and German. The idioms of these languages are very finely presented. Teachers should not fail to examine the books. AN INSTRUCTIVE ELOCUTION: designed especially for Teachers and Private Learners. By W. H. Fertich, Professional Lecturer and Teacher of Elocution. Muncie, Ind. Published by the Author. 1876. Pages 216. Price $1.00 by mail. The first part of this work is devoted to chapters on Definition, Rules, and Principles," “Cautions,” and “Methods of Class Work." These are just the things that teachers need in the practical work of the schoolroom. The author justly remarks that works are sometimes greatly needed even when there has been no “long-felt want” of them. He says, "When the Decalogue was first written on tables of stone, there was no

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'long-felt want' for a code of morals, yet nothing else was more needed.” The work contains fifty selections embracing those that have become classical as excellent specimens for elocutionary purposes. We should have been glad if the printers, F. O. Carnahan & Co., of Cincinnati, had done better work in the printing. EARLY HISTORY OF THE CLEVELAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS. By Andrew Freese.

Published by order of the Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio: 1876. Pages 127.

We have read every word of this history and with great interest. Mr. Freese had much to do with the schools of Cleveland in the critical period of their history. It was a fitting thing that Mrs. W. A. Ingham should close the work with a few pages devoted to the labors of Mr. Freese. On page 7 is a cut of the old school-house of 1817, and on page 8 one of the "old academy." The first Board of School Managers, appointed Oct. 5th 1836, consisted of John W. Willey, Anson Hayden, and Daniel Worley. We expect to enrich our pages at some future time by selections from this history. PRINCIPIA OF POLITICAL SCIENCE. Upon a reverent, Moral, Liberal, and

Progressive Foundation. By R. J. Wright, Professor of Ethics, Metaphysics, and Church History, in the Christian Biblical Institute. Third edition, revised. Published and sold by R. J. Wright, Tacony, Philadelphia. 1876. Price in cloth $2.75; in Turkey morocco, gilt edge $6.00

This book is a finely-printed [printed by Lippincott's press] octavo. Our space will allow of but a brief notice of it. Those interested in such studies (who ought not to be ?) will want to examine the work at length. The author says it was published from " a sense of duty to God," and that he kept in mind Froebel's words “come let us live for our children.” The work “is written avowedly in the interests of revealed or traditionary religion.” He defines social science as the Philosophy of Politics, in other words “ a kind of high-politics.” He calls the science of society “the science of the dispensations of providence," and says that Social Science and Christianity run parallel to each other, most of their length, the former doing for society in most things what the latter does for the individual. He thinks that experiments are necessary to establish social science as a real science. Without going into details we close by saying that in Book I. he gives a summary introduction to social science; in Book II. he treats of the Precinct; in Book III. of the Nation; and in Book IV. of Corporation. DELLA PEDAGOGICA NELLE SUE ARMONIE ED ANTONOMIE. By E. Latino.

Volume unico. Palermo : 1876. Pages 164.

This work was forwarded to us from Palermo, Italy, by Prof. Emanuelle Latino. He writes to us that it has been the fruit of assiduous research. A striking feature is that the third page is blank except that in the midst of the spotless white are the simple but suggestive words: A MADRE. The first chapter of the work is entitled “La Pedagogica Nello Scibile;" the second, Empirismo e Filosofia nelle Ricerche sull’ Educazione;" the third, “La Teorica della Natura Umana; the fourth, “La Scienza E L'Arte di Educare; the fifth, “Delle Forme Storiche del Perfeziona. mento Umano e della loro Legge; ” and the sixth, “ Criterio Pratico e la Relativa Efficacia dell'Educazione.” The author shows his familiarity with the works of Bacon and Herbert Spencer.

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DRAWING, ITS INTRODUCTION INTO OUR COMMON SCHOOLS. WHAT SHOULD BE TAUGHT?

HOW CAN IT BE INTRODUCED ? Drawing is fast losing its reputation as simply an accomplishment for young boarding-school misses to dabble in, as teaching nothing but how to make pictures of old ruins and beautiful sunsets, and every day it is being looked upon more and more as the most practical of studies, and, what is more important, as a bread-earner for the masses. Why has the opinion on this subject undergone so radical a change? Simply because the methods of teaching it have been changed. Formerly it was looked upon merely as an element of the Fine Arts, and nothing but flat copy was studied. Now it is found to have even a greater influence on the Industrial or Mechanical Arts, and a wider range of study is pursued. In this country, where the study of Drawing as bearing on the industries and thus affecting the wealth of the nation, is so new, it would be egotistical for us to say that such and such things should be taught in such and such ways, without first making a study of how the thing is done in those countries where success is now assured, having passed through the experimental stage ten, twenty, or forty years ago. Those countries have long since decided that Drawing is primarily founded on geometry, that the geometrical or conventional should be attempted before the natural or irregular, in fact, that it should be based on sound educational principles, and that its steps or departments should be arranged in a logical order. Thus every part will be teachable to young pupils. Foreign countries are unanimous in the opinion that Drawing demands, on account of its great power in influencing the industries, tastes, and wealth of a nation, to be made more universal; that all should study it; that it should be a regular study in day schools for youth of both sexes, and also that art schools and evening industrial classes should be supported. Such is the state of things in Europe. In England, over one hundred art schools are in existence, with an attendance of over 24000 students, in addition to over five hundred night classes for artisans and mechanics. These schools are even more numerous in Germany. All are aware of how important France considers the subject, and of the attention given it. Our country, although at present mainly a great supply agent of grain, coal, iron, etc., is fast assuming importance as a great manufacturing nation, and the time is not far distant when as an artistic manufacturing country, it will give Europe reason for alarm at not only losing a market for her goods, but in finding a formidable competitor in her own markets.

Every state in this Union that is engaged largely in manufacturing or that hopes to be in the future, should make the same liberal provisions that are made abroad. Drawing should be required by statute in every school as a regular study, and Free Evening Art Schools for mechanics and artisans should be required in every manufacturing town of any importance. It is a pleasure to say that three of the most important manufacturing states, Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania, have already passed such laws, and in the former state they have been in practical operation for five years. If Ohio wishes to hold her own, she cannot afford to be left behind in this race for industrial supremacy. In a consideration of what should be taught in the public schools, we should select those things that are educational, which are practical in school and of practical application in after life. Briefly, the pupil should study to draw from the Flat in outline and light and shade, Memory and Dictation Drawing, Design, elementary and applied, drawing from the Round in outline and light and shade, Mechanical drawing, including geometrical constructions, Perspective, Projection, Architectural, and Machine Drawing, etc. A course must first be arranged for graded schools, from which one may be adapted for ungraded schools. In the lowest primary grade the first instruction should be in the manner of holding the pencil, in terms used as right, left, upper, lower, centre, point, etc., kinds of lines as vertical, horizontal, oblique, kinds of angles, etc., these things being dịawn by the pupils. They learn how to divide lines into two, three, and four equal parts, and draw in outline simple exercises from copies, these exercises being geometrical or definite in form, and having enough meaning to be of interest to the pupils. The exercises are put upon the black board by the teacher, and, their construction being explained, are copied by the pupils. This is called Copy from the Blackboard. Notice, the pupils do not copy blindly; the teachers analyze the figure, showing what proportion one part is of another and what lines should be drawn first. Soon the pupils will be able to analyze for themselves. The pupils first sketch lightly, next erase construction lines, correct mistakes, then brighten, leaving a good firm line. The other subjects taken in the lowest primary grade are, Memory Drawing, which consists in reproducing forms previously drawn, Elementary Design, in which the pupils of this grade invent forms similar to those previously drawn, and Dictation Drawing. In the study of Design the work is adapted so as to fix the principles underlying all decorative art. In so broad a subject as this but the seeds can be sown in Primary Schools, the fruits being gathered in the Grammar and High Schools, where designs for manufactured objects will eventually be made, the texture, form, and color all being represented. Primary pupils commence the subject by making simple variations of figures drawn, or by repeating a figure to make either a horizontal or vertical moulding, or to cover a surface. In this subject pupils exercise their imagination, develop the inventive faculties, and when older, will not only have a knowledge of good design, but be able to make better designs themselves than half that are shown in stores and recommended as good for the reason that they are the latest things out. Dictation Drawing is the drawing of a figure line by line or part by part from a verbal or written description, the form not having been seen or drawn by the pupil. It is valuable to command thought and strict attention, as the inattentive or thoughtless will not rightly interpret the directions, and if but one direction be lost or not comprehended, all that comes after will be meaningless and the

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