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-An English pupil has defined buttress as A female who makes butter."

-The 173rd minor planet was discovered August 2, at Marseilles, by Borrelly.

-The Journal of Education published at Toronto since 1848 has been discontinued.

-The California State Teachers' Association held its annual meeting Oct. 25, 26, 27.

-The Iowa State Teachers' Association will meet at Cedar Rapids, Christmas week.

-The Minnesota State Teachers' Association was held in Mankato, Aug. 28, 29, and 30.

-The number of graduates at the last Cominencement of the Detroit High School was 88.

- THE Connecticut State Teachers' Association met in Hartford, Oct. 25th, 26th, and 27th.

-ABOUT 30 per cent of the pupils of the Public Schools of Cortland, Ohio, are non-residents.

-WORCESTER'S DICTIONARY is now the standard for spelling in the New-York Tribune office.

-THE Semi-Annual Meeting of the New-England School Superintendents was held in Boston, Oct. 26th.

-TAE Public Schools of Marion, Ohio, have been reclassified by the new Superintendent, H. G. Welty.

-THE Akron High School opened September 3rd, with 168 pupils, with a prospect of still further increase.

-THE Japanese National Exhibition was opened Aug. 21. It contains an Educational Department (Mum Busho).

-The opening attendance this year in the Columbus Public Schools was nearly 400 (397) greater than last year.

-MORE than 200 students are now in attendance at the Agricultural and Mechanical College at Columbus, Ohio.

-THE School enumeration of Akron in September, 1877, was 4,281 an increase of 131 over that of September, 1876.

-The National Educator has been changed from a semi-monthly to a monthly. It was formerly issued as a monthly.

-ABOUT a month ago, O. P. Kinsey, of Lebanon, Ohio, addressed a meeting of teachers at Donnellsville in Clark Co.

-THE enumeration of school children in Springfield, Ohio, in Sep. tember was 4993, 117 less than in September, 1876.

-E. O. VAILE's paper on the Spelling Reform published in this periodical has been copied into the Educational Voice.

-THE Normal School at Medina, Ohio, under charge of H. N. Carver, opened in September with about seventy students.

-THE Western Star says that there are more students in the National Normal School at Lebanon, Ohio, than ever before.

From the opening, in September, of the Schools in Waynesville, Ohio, to October 5, there were but two cases of tardiness.

-Ar the Commencements in June in Lewisburg, Pa., the College graduated 15 young men and the Institute 9 young ladies.

-One hundred and fifty new students appeared at the opening of the Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio, in September.

-The average age of the 24 graduates of Oberlin College at the last Commencement was 233 years. Two of the class were ladies.

-The Schools of Newark, Ohio, had a larger enrolment in September than in any preceding September in the history of the Schools.

-The enrolment in September in the Public Schools of Hamilton, Ohio, was 1656, an increase of 220 over the enrolment in September, 1876.

-OTTERBEIN UNIVERSITY at Westerville, Ohio, opened August 8th with 148 students. The Senior Class is larger than any of its predecessors.

The Boyd-County (Ky.) Teachers' Institute was held under the direction of the County Superintendent in Catlettsburg, the week beginning Oct. 15th.

- Pupils in the Springfield (Ohio) High School that intend to enter college are now allowed to study Greek in place of certain other studies of the course.

-THE Pacific School and Home Journal is becoming a power on the Pacific Slope. It is much larger and better printed than the late “California Teacher.”

-The Academy at Clermontville, under charge of J. K. Parker, began its work for the current school year, Oct. 1. This Academy is said to be one of the best in the State.

-THE“ Archivio Di Pedagogia E Scienze Affinidiretto Da Emanuele Latino at Palermo, Italy, has entered upon its second volume. It is always filled with excellent articles.

-The first article in No. 12, vol. I, (Aug. 31, 1877,) of the American Library Journal, is “How to Start Libraries in Small Towns.” It is the sixth article of a series on this subject.

-The Wisconsin Teachers' Association was held at Green Bay, July 17, 18, 19. Jas. MacAlister, Superintendent of the Public Schools of Milwaukee, was chosen President for next year.

-THE Ontario Teachers' Association met in Toronto the same week in which the National Educational Association met in Louisville. The meeting was declared one of the most successful ever held.

-At an examination in London University some months ago, a lady (Ellen M. Watson) took the first prize in mathematics and mechanics, defeating a hundred young men who sought the same honor.

-The two well-known professors of chemistry and physics in the University of Berlin receive each a salary of $7,500 independent of lecture receipts. Several leading professors receive salaries of $4,500.

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-THE Cincinnati Volksfreund of Oct. 2, contains a communication from Hamilton, dated Oct. 1, in which school items are given and very complimentary references are made to Supt. Ellis.

-A PAPER on "The Relation of the Kindergarten to the Common Schools” prepared by Kate French was read at the last meeting of the New Jersey State Teachers' Association, New Brunswick, in August last.

-The School enumeration in September last in Columbus was 14,209 an increase of 1,523 over that in September, 1876. The population of the city was 49,381 being an increase of 4,582 over that of the preceding year.

-“THE WITTENBERGER" began its fifth volume last month changed to a 24-page, 2-column, covered octavo. Wm. Hoover, Superintendent of the Public Schools of Bellefontaine still continues to edit the Mathematical Department.

-The Indiana School Journal for September says that “Russia has at last adopted the Gregorian calendar.” We should like the authority for this statement, as such a statement has been incorrectly made several times since 1830.

-THE Maryland School Journal, which according to its editor, the Hon. M. A. Newell, was announced in June as in articulo mortis, has entirely recovered and it entered upon its fourth year of existence in September in sound health.

-HARPER'S WEEKLY says that Harper and Brothers have paid in copyrights to Marcius Willson about $200,000; to Chas. Anthon about $100,000; to Albert Barnes $75,000; to J. L. Motley about $60,000, and to Jacob Abbott about $50,000.

-THE Illinois College, at Jacksonville, Ill., opened. on the 13th of September with nearly double the usual number of students in attendance. This is the Institution with which Prof. S. S. Hamill, late of the Cincinnati High Schools, is now connected.

-THE Public Schools of Norwalk, Ohio, opened in September with an attendance of about 800 or 100 more than in any previous year. This increase was in part the result of the attendance of many Catholic children who had previously attended the Catholic Schools.

-The Grand-River Institute at Austinburg, Ohio, had Sept. 16, over 200 students, as many as can be well cared for. Seventeen of the students began Greek, nearly 70, Latin, 70 algebra, and 24 geometry. Dr. Tuckerman may well take pride in his success in building up the school.

-F. W. HELMICK, of Cincinnati, has published a new piece of music called the “Dear Old Homestead ” by Anna C. Hilts; also one called “Don't Put the Poor Workingman Down” by Bobby Newcomb, and one called “Goy. Thos. L. Young's Grand March" by Prof. Thos. N. Caulfield.

-THE Pennsylvania Teachers' Association held in Erie in August had not so large an attendance as was expected. The railway strike interfered withị the meeting. The enrolment was 192. The proceedings were published in full in the September issue of the Pennsylvania School Journal.

-The Schools of Bridgeport opened in September with an attendance of over 500 although the School census is but little more than 600. Supt. D. P. Pratt, High School, Carrie Cooper, lower rooms, Miss R. L. Lafferty, Anna M. Hartstein, Lena Adolph, Leonore Jones, Mary Clayland, and Aggie Reid, Ætnaville building, Mixed School, Lillie Newlin, and Colored School, Mr. West.

-THERE are 1600 pupils in the Public Schools of Portland, Oregon, taught by 37 teachers. The salaries of the Superintendents and Principals are each in coin $1800, two lady assistants in the High School, $1200 each, one $1000, one (gentleman) 1 time $600; lady assistants in the Grammar Schools, $750, $700, and $600.

-Last month there appeared the first number of the Primary Teacher o published by the Hon. T. W. Bicknell, of Boston, 16, Hawley Street. Terms $1.00 a year of ten months. Single numbers 15 cts. This magazine is devoted to the “Interests of Primary Instruction in America.” Every primary teacher should send for the Primary Teacher.

-The Normal Class conducted in New Lisbon in the summer vacation by C. C. Davidson and G. W. Snyder combined academic and professional work. Mr. Davidson was made by the students the recipient of an elegant gold pen and holder; Mr. Snyder of some rare books; and Mrs. Davidson of a music “reticule or portmanteau.” Resolutions of satisfaction and confidence were passed.

-THERE are now two courses in the Warren High School, one called the Normal, or three-years' course, and the other the Classical, or fouryears' course. The former requires Latin or German but not both, and the latter allows Latin or German, and Greek. But Greek may be dispensed with for some scientific study.

-THE Cincinnati Commercial some months ago alluded to the rapid counting of the school children as exhibited by Supt. J. B. Peaslee at the Hughes High-School building. A class of pupils with the average age of 61 years gave all kinds of combinations from 1 to 10 at the rate of 100 a minute, and a class of 8-year olds, combinations and subtractions from 10 to 144, at the rate of 150 a minute.

-In the issue of the Medical and Surgical Reporter for August 25, 1877, the editor D. G. Brinton, discusses at length the importance of professional examinations and the mode in which they should be conducted. Too many poorly qualified young men are turned out by medical colleges. He thinks the examination should be made to cover the scientific cast of the student's mind as well as the facts gleaned from books and lectures.

-THE parents of the pupils that have attended the Pittsburgh High School from 1868 to 1877 may be classified as follows:-Skilled laborers, 696 ; unskilled, 232; office holders, 36; professional men, 154; merchants and storekeepers, 258; widows, 128; miscellaneous, 203. Total, 1707. The Principal of the School Dr. B. C. Jillson in a letter to Superintendent Luckey has given the specific names of the occupations, in alphabetic order, to the number of 200.

-The Warren-County Teachers' Association met in Lebanon, Ohio,

Saturday, Sept. 27. The attendance was larger than usual. J. C. Murray read a paper on “Some of the Professional Duties of Teachers," and Geo. S. Ormsby of Xenia, one on “The Practical in Common Schools.” F. M. Cunningham performed some experiments in Pneumatics, and Mr. Ormsby presented his system of Map Drawing.

-The September issue of the Wisconsin Journal of Education says in reference to the last session of the Ohio Teachers' Association at Put-inBay, “Ohio, the third of our great States in population, is in the first rank as to the zeal of her educators.” Thanks for the compliment. One great reason for the great efficiency of the Ohio Teachers' Association is that in the thirty years of its existence it has never been annoyed by squabbles for its offices.

-We have seen it stated in a Canada newspaper that a teacher, by the name of Varden, in South Norwich compelled a seven-year-old pupil to sit in school the large part of an afternoon with a dead snake around his neck because he had brought the snake to school. Occasionally there are teachers who exercise no judgment in their treatment of offences committed by pupils, among these may be classed the late Dr. Francis Gardner, if we are to believe the account of him given in the October issue of Harper's Magazine.

-The first meeting of the Mahoning-County Teachers' Association was held in Canfield, Oct. 6. A paper on Raising the Standard for Qualifications for Teachers” was read by Mr. McCollum, of Youngstown, which was discussed by Messrs. Moulton, McMillan, Fillius, and Clark; E. F. Moulton, of Warren, read a paper on The Modern Teacher;" Miss E. S. Scobie, of Canfield, read an essay on “How to Govern,” the discussion of which was opened by Mr. Gilson.

-The Butler-County Teachers' Association met in Hamilton, Ohio, Oct. 13th. The following were the exercises :—President Ellis's Inaug. ural; “The Metric System,” L. D. Brown, of Eaton; “Perplexities,” B. Starr, of Seven Mile; “Penmanship,” T. J. McAvoy, of Indianapolis; “Class Reading,” B. F. Marsh, of Oxford; “School Government,” R. W. Wood, of Liberty, Ind.; General Remarks, Messrs. Barnard, Grennan, Mitchell, and Pollok. Music, instrumental and vocal, was furnished by Walter H. Aiken, Theo. Meyder, Katie Hoar, and Lida Buckingham.

-HERE is a specimen of the good sense of our Canadian brothers. The following is an item found in one of their newspapers :—“The professional third-class examination of Model School pupils will be in education, reading and elocution, mental arithmetic, school law and regulations, hygiene, etiquette, and good manners. No candidate who habitually speaks ungrammatically or mispronounces ordinary words, or is extremely defective in any important subject, or is slovenly in his dress, or ill-mannered, or is devoid of aptitude for teaching, or is unqualified for any other reason, can obtain a certificate.”

-J. J. Burns, Superintendent of the Public Schools of St. Clairsville, was the successful candidate, at the late Ohio election for the office of State Commissioner of Common Schools. Mr. Burns is known to many teachers of the State by his acceptable Institute labors. We can assure teachers that

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