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own accord and the words seem to spell themselves. In short, good spelling should be made a habit; it should become an act of spontaneous rather than of intentional memory. In aiming to make it such, it should be remembered that memory holds better what is seen than what is heard :

Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem,
Quam quae sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et quae

Ipse sibi tradit spectator.--HOR. De Art. Poet. The forms of words must be impressed upon the memory rather than the mere names of their letters; and practice in writing and reading written words is the only adequate means of doing this.

NORMAL METHOD OF LEARNING A SPELLING LESSON.-Spelling, studied as a preparation for writing words, is more easily learned and better remembered by acquiring an ideal of the written form than by committing to memory the mere names of the letters that compose the word. A spelling-lesson is therefore best studied by first reading and observing the written or script form and then imitating that form in the actual writing of the word. If the pupil is required to prepare himself for a merely oral recitation in spelling, his main endeavor is to memorize the names of the letters composing each word; very little attention will be given to the form of the word, and if it be any other than the script form, the little attention he may give will be of the least assistance to him when he comes to write the word; his recollection of it will be, as far as it is correct, merely a remembrance of the names of its letters. If he should write it wrong, memory will bring forward no ideal of its form to tell him at once that the word does not look right; and without this prompting (which perhaps is every one's sole reliance in finding out bad spelling) he will not himself notice his error. The spelling-book should therefore present the words to be learned in their script form; the pupils should be required to write from the book each word of the lesson, and should also (for reasons given farther on) compose and write for each a sentence containing it; they should bring what is so written to the recitation and there each word should in turn be spelled aloud from the slate or paper and pronounced, and the pupil's own sentence for the word read. Learned by this method one's recollection of a word will not be a mere remembrance of the names of letters composing it; the mind is impressed not only by sound but also in the more powerful way,

by form; the thing to be remembered is perceived with two senses instead of one; there is a more tense activity of the power of attention, and memory is better able to hold what is learned, and more likely spontaneously to recall it when it shall be wanted.

NORMAL METHOD OF RECITING A SPELLING-LESSON.-In the act of writing a word from memory, the pupil's attention is divided between the effort to remember the letters and the effort to make them, and if he is writing his own thoughts there is still another element of distraction. It is evident then that until practice has made him able to write a word with almost unconscious effort he will be very liable to misspell it. That a pupil's ability to spell a word orally.is no certainty whatever that he will write it correctly is a fact often observed. A recitation in spelling should be a drill in writing words subject to all the ordinary causes of distraction; it should also be a test of the pupil's ability so to write. It is therefore best conducted by requiring him to write from memory not only each word of the lesson, but at the same time an original sentence containing that word. Each pupil should in turn as the teacher pronounces, write upon the blackboard a word and his sentence for it. This may at first, especially with pupils unable to write well, seem to require too much time, but if the exercise is only persevered in there will soon be a marked progress in the legibility and speed of the writing, and it will not be long before comparatively few words will be misspelled; for there is a greater aversion to misspelling a word upon the blackboard than to misspelling it orally. The error made with the lips seems as it were to pass away with the sound of the voice, but the error upon the board stands out plainly in view until all have gazed upon it. In using these exercises the teacher will destroy the habit of heedless spelling when it exists and will each day be building up the habit of painstaking and care. There will be a growing desire to spell right and an increasing mortification at spelling wrong. It is in the end much the shortest way to learn spelling, really requiring least time; whatever is learned will be learned much better than by the old methods, and will by no means be so easily forgot; and besides the spelling and writing, the pupils will also learn language and many things that pertain to the art of composition.

A. G. BEECHER.

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT.

-We regret to announce the death, January 21, of the Hon. John A. Norris, formerly Ohio State Commissioner of Common Schools. He was born in Perry, Lake County, Ohio, August 10, 1835. He graduated at Kenyon College in 1860, after which he entered upon the duties of tutor in Baton Rouge, La., where he remained until the breaking out of the war, the next year escaping to the North on next to the last train that got through from the South. He resided in Cadiz, Ohio, until the call for 300,000 men, when he organized Company C, of the Ninety-eighth Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and was mustered into service at Camp Mingo, near Steuben ville, August 23, 1862. The regiment took part in the bloody battle of Perryville, at which Capt. Norris was severely wounded in his right leg. He soon, however, reported for duty. He was again wounded in the right leg in the Atlanta campaign, July 28, 1864, in leading, as major of the regiment, a skirmish-line at Peachtree Creek. This wound resulted in the amputation of his right leg. Shortly after his discharge he received the appointment of Provost Marshal of the Sixteenth District, which he held until the discontinuance of the office. He was elected State School Commissioner in 1868. His nomination, doubtless secured through the influence of John A. Bingham, was coldly and sullenly received by the educational men of the State, the belief being general that the nomination was due to the Hon. E. E. White, who was then acting as School Commissioner under appointment of Governor Tod, and was giving general satisfaction. Notwithstanding this, Mr. Norris, after entering upon the duties of his office, by his earnest efforts and coöperation with the teachers of the State, won their respect and confidence. He was reëlected in 1868, but resigned in June, 1869, to accept the more lucrative position of Pension Agent at Columbus. He was married March 6, 1865, to Miss Nettie Beebe, of Cadiz, Ohio, who with four children survives him.

-SOME months ago the “Nation” noticed the catalogue of Neophogen College, an upstart institution in Tennessee. In the “Nation" of January 25, 1877, a correspondent, F. W. C. [Prof. F. W. Clarke, of Cincinnati University ?], puts in rival claims in behalf of some Ohio colleges. He says:

“In the eastern part of the State there is an institution known as the One-Study University.” It is situated in Scio, but whether this fact has anything to do with Sciolism I am unable to say. In this university a student, according to the catalogue, 'passes through the course by taking up and thoroughly completing one study at a time.' This is eminently satisfactory. It is indeed cheering to know that here in Ohio such thoroughness is possible. What student ever thoroughly completed' any study in any Eastern college? (Why say Eastern college ?]. And yet, in face of facts like these, Ohio Colleges (I beg pardon, universities) are often accused of slipshod work and smattering. There is however, connected with the One-Study University a fact which might be improperly used by a malicious person. One of its Bachelors of Arts is at present in the preparatory department of another Ohio university; trying to get exalted into the freshman class, and the professors who now have this person in charge cannot ascertain with any degree of certainty in just what 'one study' he graduated. But is the One-Study University to blame for this unfortunate state of affairs ? Certainly not; for it evidently filled this student fuller of learning than he could hold, so that somehow or other he sprang a mental leak."

In 1869 we met the President of the One-Study University, then NewMarket College, and obtained from him a full account of the philosophy of the system. If we remember rightly we learned that THREE WEEKS were given to the mastery of a work on Analytical Geometry. Our readers ought not to smile at this when they recall the comic illustration in the October number of Harper's Magazine in 1853, below which is the following text.

“First Young GENT.—What a miwackulous tie, Fwank. How the doose do you manage ?

Second Young GENT.—Yas. I fancy it is rather grand; but then, you see I give the whole of my Mind to it!!

-We have recently made a short tour of inspection, visiting the Public Schools of Alliance, Ravenna, Hudson, Youngstown, and Warren, as well as Western-Reserve College. In all the schools we observed excellent order. We shall allude only to the classes that most impressed us. The reading in the lower grades of the schools in Youngstown and Ravenna, Alliance and Warren, was excellent. The reading in the High School at Ravenna was about the best we ever heard in a High School. The class is taught by Mrs. Pickett. The animation and force with which the young ladies read showed that Mrs. Pickett knows how to produce excellent results. We learned that Mrs. Pickett does not confine her instruction to expression alone, but makes the exercise relate also to the historical and literary bearings of each lesson. The skill with which the pupils in Ravenna, Hudson, and Warren read music was very noticeable. The arithmetical teaching in Alliance, Youngstown, and Warren deserves especial commendation. Separate books on Mental Arithmetic are used in Youngstown. We heard good recitations in algebra and geometry in Ravenna, and trigonometry in Youngstown, and excellent recitations in grammar in Youngstown and Hudson. The only schools in which we witnessed drawing exercises was one in Warren where Mr. L. S. Thompson's system is taught. The teachers of Youngstown meet every Monday afternoon at four o'clock. We had the pleasure of meeting all of the thirtyseven teachers, one only being excused, at their meeting February 12. We here take the opportunity of tendering our grateful thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Pickett, Prof. De Wolf, Mr. and Mrs. Cutler, Mr. and Mrs. M'Millạn, and Mr. and Mrs. Moulton, whose hospitalities rendered our visits exceedingly pleasant.

The Youngstown Public Schools are under the superintendency of that veteran Superintendent Reuben M'Millan, a man of great force of

courses.

character. It is needless to say that the schools are in good condition. We found them better than we had expected to find them, although our expectations were by no means moderate. There are in all connected with the schools, including the Superintendent, thiry-seven teachers. There are in the High School, called the Rayen School, two three-year

Greek is taught to those preparing for college. This excellent school has an abundant supply of physical and chemical apparatus worth $5,000. The apparatus is used too. This is more than can be said of the apparatus in many schools. Prof. E. S. Gregory, the Principal, formerly connected with Western-Reserve College, is an enthusiast in the Natural Sciences, and hence turns the apparatus, which has been collected by him, to the greatest possible account. Florence Rayen and Charles Thomas teach in this school at the respective salaries $900 and $750. The Principal's salary is $1,700. We give the names of the teachers in the other school buildings, with their grades and salaries. Wood Street:-A and B Grammar, Julia A. Hitchcock and Sarah Pearson, $750 and $500; C and D Grammar, Minnie Weirick, and A Primary, Etta Walker, each $450 ; B, C, and D Primary, Mrs. L. M. Rupp, Maggie Robbins, and Nele Kelty, each $400; C, D, and C and D Primary, Ella Megown, Katie Cornell, and Clara Predmore, each $350. Central Street:-A and B Grammar, H. C. Muckley, $800; C and B Grammar and A, C, and D Primary, Mrs. Mary Howe and Mary G. Moore, each $450; A and B Primary, B Primary, C Primary, D Primary, and D Primary, Mrs. Delia Stiles, Addie A. Noble, Josephine M'Keown, Sarah Armstrong, and Sallie Fowler, each $400; D Primary and D Primary, Mrs. Rilla Wallace and Alice Predmore, each $350. Covington Street :-D Grammar and A Primary, James M. Dickson, $650; B Primary, Anna J. Dickson, $400; C and D Primary, Mrs. Sarah Richards, $350; D Primary, Lelia McBurney, $330; and general assistant, Agnes I. Moses, $350. West Side :-D Grammar and A and B Primary, J. C. Logan, $650, assistant, Bessie Dennison, $350; C and D Primary, Julia Bartley, $400, assistant, Florence Woods, $330. South Side :-B and C Primary, Louisa Loudenslager, $400, and D Primary, Emma Dennison, $330. Oak Street:-C and D Primary, Kate Clark, $350, and D Primary, Ida I. Mansell, $330.

-The new school building at Alliance cost $23,000. It is situated on a lot 150 feet by 120 feet. The teachers in this building are Ella Griffith (High School), Sarah E. Rutter (A Grammar), Mary Baker (B Grammar), Lizzie Fetters (C Grammar), Phebe Peet (D Grammar), and Grace Whitcomb (A and B Primary). In the old building Oliver Coxen has charge of the A and B Grammar, Isabella Swanston the C Grammar, and Etta Griffith the D Grammar; Mrs. H. N. Culbertson the A and B Primary, and Ora Barnaby the C and D Primary. Primary schools are taught in the Market-Street building, the Webb building, and the Linden-Avenue building, by Ellen Peet and Eliza Laughlin, Amelia M’Bride and Isola Rickard, and Sarah Dalzell and Joseph Hunter. The grades in the Alliance schools are generally designated by the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4, instead of D, C, B, and A. We neglected to inquire for the salaries of the

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