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Arguments from the Scriptures; Examination of Arguments against Eternal Punishment; An Argument from the Provi. dence of God towards the Righteous and the Wicked ; Argument against Universalism deduced from its Moral Influence; Eternal Punishment not inconsistent with Divine Justice; Difficulty from the Divine Goodness considered. It will be seen at once, that Dr. Parker has not shaped his discussion with particular reference to the views of later Universalists. He supposes,-correctly we apprehend,—“that men first become Universalists by means of the arguments and objections speci. fied in this volume." It is well to follow this Protean error through all its changes; it is well occasionally to erect a battery against that perfect anomaly of creeds-modern Univer. salism ; but it is not wise to leave the old battle-ground on which the victory has been so often won. Elsewhere, indeed, we may confound and silence our opponents; but here is almost the only spot where we can hope to convince. As an auxiliary to this end, the work of Dr. Parker will be exceedingly useful. The tone of the discussion is kind but manly, the reasoning lucid and unanswerable. Different opinions will be entertained as to the conclusiveness of this or that text of Scripture; but the argument as a whole is irresistible, and, if read with candor, cannot fail to do good.
3.—Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia
Petrca. A Journal of Travels in the year 1838, by E. Robinson and E. Smith, undertaken in reference to Biblical Geography. Drawn up from the Original Diaries, with Historical Illustrations, by Edward Robinson, D. D., Professor of Biblical Literature in the Union Theological Seminary, New York, Author of a Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament, etc. With new Maps and Plans in Five Sheets. In Three Volumes 8vo. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. New-York: Jona. Leavitt. London: John Murray. Halle: Waisenhausbuchhandlung. 1841. pp. 599, 679, 721.
It is with no ordinary pleasure that we announce the appearance of this truly great work of our friend Dr. Robinson. Some foretastes of the “Journal” embraced in these volumes have already been furnished to our readers in preceding Nos. of the Repository. Our knowledge of the long cherished plans of the author, his ample qualifications for his undertaking, and the patience and faithfulness with which he is accustomed to pursue his investigations had raised our expect. ations high in respect to the result of his “Researches." Our anticipations, however, have been more than answered. We looked for a work on Biblical Geography, which should correct and verify the topography of the Holy Land. Such was the humble aim of our author. In respect to his journey in Palestine he remarks: “I entered upon it without the slightest anticipation of the results to which we were providentially led.” He hoped, indeed, to satisfy himself by personal observation, as to many points on wbich the books of travellers gave no information. “But I never thought,” he adds, “of adding any thing to the former stock of knowledge on these subjects ; I never dreamed of any thing like discoveries in this field.” In the progress of his researches, however, new subjects of inquiry were suggested, and objects undescribed by former travellers were constantly presenting themselves, and thus an unexpected amount of materials was accumulated in the Journals of our author and his companion, the Rev. E. Smith, out of which to construct a much larger and more ex. tensive work than had been designed.
With these materials Dr. Robinson returned to Germany. They were too valuable and too deeply interesting to the cause of Biblical learning to justify his attempting their elucidation without the best historical and philological helps. The libraries of this country could not have furnished him the means of that investigation which their importance seemed to demand. He accordingly, during the whole preparation of his volumes for the press, remained in Berlin, where, in the unrestricted use of the Royal Library and the very valuable private collections of Ritter, Neander and Hengstenberg, he enjoyed all the literary means he could desire. The result is that the three volumes, now given to the public by an American citizen, contain a mass of information, Biblical, Geographical, Historical and Critical, which places this work in the highest rank of the learned productions of the age, and confers an honor, which we ought not lightly to esteem, upon our country.
These volumes, however, valuable as they are in themselves, the author wishes may“ be regarded merely as a beginning, a first attempt to lay open the treasures of Biblical Geography and History still remaining in the Holy Land, -treasures which have lain for ages unexplored, and had become so covered with the dust and rubbish of many centuries, that their very existence was forgotten.” Mr. Smith has returned to the seat of his labors in Beirût, taking with him instruments of the best kind, in the hope of being able, in his occasional journeys, to verify and correct the former observations of himself and Dr. R., and also to extend his examination to other parts of the country. From the materials thus to be gathered, together with those already in possession, our author intends hereafter to prepare “a systematic work on the physical and historical Geography of the Holy Land.”
On the whole, it is rarely the privilege of the periodical press, in any country, to announce a publication so rich in the materials of important knowledge, and so full of promise in respect to its progressive improvement and diffusion, as the work now before us. To the Biblical student and the Christian scholar it opens sources of instruction, new, unexpected, and in the highest degree interesting. But we have not space in the present notice for an analysis of these volumes, and we abstain from any discussion of their merits in detail, having reason to expect a review, from a competent hand, in season for our October No.
In justification of the high terms of commendation, in which we have felt it our duty, after a very brief examination of this work, to introduce it to our readers, we add the following extract of a letter from Professor Ritter of Berlin, the perusal of which we have solicited, and which our author, we hope, will excuse us for inserting without his permission. It is the testimony of a German Professor of “ Universal Geography," whose opinion, on this subject, possesses the highest authority. It is contained in a friendly letter addressed to Dr. Robinson, dated Berlin, March 2, 1841.
“I cannot often enough repeat, what an uncommon amount of instruction I owe to the invaluable work you have left us here. It lays open, unquestionably, one of the richest discoveries, one of the most important scientific conquests, which has been made for a long time in the field of Geography and Biblical Archæology. I can at present say this the more decidedly; because, having had opportunity to examine the printed sheets nearly to the end of the second volume, I can better judge of the connection of the whole, than was before possible. Now, however, I perceive, how one part sustains another; and what noble confirmation the truth of the Holy Scriptures receives from so many passages of your investigations, in a manner altogether unexpected and often surprising, even in particulars seemingly the most trivial and unimportant. The accompanying Maps, too, justify, step by step, the course of the investigations.
“Thus now first begins, since the days of Reland, the second great epoch of our knowledge of the Promised Land. You
can well afford to return to your home, fully satisfied with the rich harvest of your journey. The blessing of every student of the Holy Scriptures will follow you. Above all I admire, your devoted perseverance in these inquiries. How providential, too, for you, that you could thus travel in Palestine immediately before the entanglements and troubles of the oriental question !”
The Third volume contains 246 pages of appendices, in which are found a Chronological list of works on Palestine and Mount Sinai, with some account of their history and contents, memoirs of maps, etc., an Itinerary exhibiting the routes and general rate of travel of our Journalists, an Essay on the pronunciation of the Arabic, by Mr. Smith, lists of Arabic names of places in Palestine and the adjacent regions, etc.
The maps intended to accompany the work were drawn up in Berlin, and will no doubt be found in accordance with the best Geographical authorities. We will only add, that this work, as is intimated on the title-page, is published simulta. neously in Germany, England and the United States. The copy before us is in the best style of the American press. Mr. Trow, the printer, has here turned to a good account his recently procured and beautiful founts of Greek, Hebrew and Arabic type.
4.-A Classical Dictionary; containing an Account of the princi
pal Proper Names mentioned in Ancient Authors, and intended to elucidate all the important points connected with the Geography, Biography, History, Mythology and Fine Arts of the Greeks and Romans : together with an Account of Coins, Weights and Measures, with Tabular Values of the same. By Charles Anthon, L. L. D., Jay Professor of the Greek and Latin Languages in Columbia College, New York, and Rector of the Grammar School. New-York: Harper & Brothers, 1841, pp. 1430.
The author of this comprehensive and useful volume, it is well known, has bestowed much time and study, within the last few years, on the different topics embraced within the plan of a Classical Dictionary. The work of Lempriere was published in 1788; and its popularity was soon established. A second edition appeared in 1792, a third in 1797, and others followed at intervals of five or six years. In 1825, Prof. Anthon was requested to prepare a new edition of Lempriere ;
without venturing, however, on extensive changes, his alterations were restricted to the more obvious mistakes and defects of the original work. But another edition was soon called for, which, owing to the numerous improvements introduced into it, was republished in England. In 1833, still another edition was issued, in two volumes, containing the results of Prof. Anthon's more recent investigations.
It will be seen at a glance that the author has been gradually and laboriously preparing himself for this new and improved Classical Dictionary. In addition to the time bestowed on Lempriere, he informs us in his Preface, that “the patient labor of more than two entire years has been faithfully expended” on the present work ; "which, though compressed in a single volume, will be found to contain much more than the edition of Lempriere in two volumes, as published by the Messrs. Carvill."
The principal topics illustrated by Prof. Anthon are the Geography, History, Biography, Mythology and Fine Arts of the Greeks and Romans. The subject of Archæology he has reserved for a “Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities," to be prepared “with all convenient speed." He has devoted very great attention to Ancient Geography. He thinks “that in no work in the English language will there be found a larger body of valuable information, on this most interesting subject, than in that which is here offered to the American student.” Next to Ancient Geography, the Mythology of Antiquity has furnished the largest number of articles. It has been his aim to present an impartial view of the two great schools,—the Mystic and Anti-mystic,--which now divide the learned of Europe. In preparing these articles special care has been taken, by the exclusion of every thing gross and offensive, to adapt the work to the young of both sexes. The historical and biographical departments have been amply illustrated. The later speculations of English and German scholars, respecting the origin of nations, may be found in different parts of the volume. The biographies of distinguished individuals are intended to exhibit an outline of the literature, philosophy and fine arts of antiquity.
In its execution the work is such as was to be expected from the extensive attainments and indefatigable industry of Prof. Anthon. Its great superiority to previous Classical Dictionaries is everywhere apparent. At the same time that innumerable topics, which are treated by Lempriere very briefly and vaguely, if at all, are here illustrated with copious and varied erudition, the greatest care has been taken to exclude