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not so conveyed and derived as is here asserted, the words are not an exaggeration of what is, but a downright fiction of what is not.
8. "As Adam produced his offspring, like himself, destitute of the image of God, so he produced them destitute of the favour of God, under the same condemnation with himself. (p. 174, 175.) So Job: Man that is born of a woman is of few days and full of trouble:' (ch. xiv. 1.) i. e. His short life and his troubles proceed from his very birth: his propagation from sinful and mortal parents. Otherwise God would not have appointed his noblest creature in this world to have been born to trouble. Yet this is the case. "Man is born to trouble as the sparks fly upward,' (Job. v. 7.) Naturally: for it is owing to his birth and his natural dérivation from a sinful stock. We are a miserable race, springing from a corrupted and dying root, prone to sin, and liable to sorrows and sufferings.
"In proof of this sentence of condemnation and death coming upon all mankind for the sin of Adam, we need only read from the 12th verse of the 5th chapter of St. Paul's epistle to the Romans, (p. 175 :) on which I observe,
1. "Here Adam and Christ are set up as distinct heads or representatives, of their several families. Adam was the head of all mankind, who became sinful and mortal through his sin: Christ was the head of all believers, who obtain pardon and life through his righteousness. To prove this headship of Adam, the apostle says, 'Until the law,' that is, from the creation till the law of Moses, sin was in the world; but sin is not imputed where there is no law.' That is, where there is no law or constitution of duty or penalty at all. Yet, saith he, Death reigned from Adam to Moses' yet sin was imputed and punished by death, even upon all mankind, both small and great, before the law given by Moses. The inference is, Therefore there was some law or constitution during all the time from Adam to Moses: in virtue of which, sin was imputed to mankind; and death accordingly executed upon them. Now what law or constitution could this be, beside that which was
said to Adam, as a representative of his whole posterity, "In the day thou sinnest thou shalt die? (p. 177, 178.)
2. "The apostle carries his argument yet farther, 'Siu was imputed,' and death reigned,' or was executed even upon those who had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression:' who had not broken an express command, as Adam had done. This manifestly refers to infants: death reigned over them; death was executed upon them. And this must be by some constitution which in some sense imputed sin, to them who had not committed actual sin. For without such a constitution sin would never have been imputed, nor death executed on children.
66 Yet, 3. Death did not come upon them as a mere natural effect of their father Adam's sin and death: but as a proper and legal punishment of sin. (p. 179:) for it is said, his sin brought condemnation upon all men. Now this is a legal term, and shews, that death is not only a natural, but a penal evil, and comes upon infants as guilty and condemned: not for their own actual sins; for they had none: but for the sin of Adam their legal head, their appointed representative.
“In the 18th verse the expression is very strong, 'By the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation.' All the children of Adam, young and old, are con demned for his one offence. But farther,
4. "In the original it is not, By the offence of one: but By one offence, By the single offence of Adam, when he stood as the head of all his offspring, and brought sin and death upon them by his disobedience: as, in the following verse,' By one man's disobedience many were made, or constituted sinners; that is, became liable to guilt and death. And so in the 16th verse, one single offence is represented as condemning through Adam, and stands in opposition to the many offences which are pardoned through Christ.
5. "There is a yet farther proof in this chapter that Adam conveyed sin and death to his posterity, not merely, as a natural parent, but as a common head and representa
tive of all his offspring. (p. 181.) As Adam and Christ are here said to be the two springs of sin and righteousness, of death and life to mankind, so the one is represented as a type and figure of the other. In this very respect Adam was a figure or type of Christ. (ver. 14.) And for this very reason Christ is called, the Second Man, the last Adam. As one was the spring of life, so the other was the spring of death, to all his seed or offspring. (1 Cor. xv. 47--49.)
"Now Christ is a spring of life not only as he conveys sanctification or holiness to his seed, but as he procures for them justification and eternal life by his personal obedience. And so Adam is a spring of death, not only as he conveys an unholy nature to his seed, to all men, but as he brings condemnation to eternal death upon them, by his personal disobedience. And this is the chief thing which the apostle seems to have in his eye throughout the latter part of this chapter: the conveyance of condemnation and death to the seed of Adam, of justification and eternal life to the seed of Christ, by the means of what their respective heads or representatives had done.
"But some object, "all the blessings which God gave at first to Adam, consisted in these three particulars, 1. The blessing of propagation.-2. Dominion over the brutes.— 3. The image of God. But all these three are more expressly and emphatically pronounced to Noah and his sons than to Adam in Paradise." (p. 183.)
"I answer, if we review the history and context, we shall find the blessing of Adam and that of Noah, very widely differ from each other, in all the three particulars mentioned. (p. 186.)
"1. The blessing of Adam relating to propagation, was without those multiplied pains and sorrows, which after the first sin, fell upon women, in bearing children. It was also a blessing of sustentation or nourishment, without hard toil and the sweat of his brow. It was a blessing without a curse on the ground, to lessen or destroy the fruitfulness thereof. It was a blessing without death, without returning to dust: whereas the blessing of Noah,
did not exclude death, no nor the pains of child-birth, nor the earning our bread by the sweat of our brow.
"2. To Adam was given dominion over the brutes. To Noah it was only said, 'The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast.' But notwithstanding this fear and dread, yet they frequently sting men to death, or bite and tear them in pieces. Whereas no such calamity could ever have befallen innocent Adam or his innocent offspring. (p. 187.)
3. The image of GOD in which Adam was created, consisted eminently in righteousness and true holiness. But that part of the image of GOD which remained after the fall, and remains in all men to this day, is the natural image of God, namely the spiritual nature and immortality of the soul: not excluding the political image of God, or a degree of dominion over the creatures still remaining. But the moral image of God, is lost and defaced or else it could not be said to be renewed. (p. 188.) It is then evident, that the blessing given to Adam in innocency, and that given to Noah after the Flood, differ so widely, that the latter was consistent with the condemnation or curse for sin, and the former was not. Consequently mankind does not now stand in the same favour of God, as Adam did while he was innocent. (p. 189.)
"Thus it appears, that the holy Scripture both in the Old and New Testaments, give us a plain and full account, of the conveyance of sin, misery, and death, from the first man to all his offspring.
THE FIRST ESSAY.
Do the present Miseries of Man alone, prove his Apostacy from GOD? SECTION I.
A general Survey of the Follies and Miseries of Mankind.
"Upon a just view of human nature, (p. 359.) from its entrance into life, till it retires behind the curtain of death,
one would be ready to say concerning man, "Is this the "creature that is so superior to the rest of the inhabitants "of the globe, as to require the peculiar care of the Cre❝ator in forming him? (p. 360.) Does he deserve such an "illustrious description, as even the Heathen poet has "given us of him ?”
Sanctius hic animal, mentisq; capacius Altæ
Deerat adhuc, & quod dominari in cætera posset.
A creature of a more exalted kind,
Was wanting yet, and then was man design'd:
Beholds his own hereditary skies.
"Now if man was formed in the image of God, certainly he was a holy and a happy being. But what is there like holiness or happiness now found, running through this rank of creatures? Are there any of the brutal kind that do not more regularly answer the design of their creation ? Are there any brutes that we ever find acting so much below their original character, on the land, in the water, or the air, as mankind does all over the earth? Or are there any tribes among them, through which pain, vexation, and misery, are so plentifully distributed as they are among the children of men? (p. 361.)