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the ocean at the Sandheads, a part and portion of the hard and' dangerous sand banks that stretch away from the Soonderbuns for many a weary mile. Or this mud may have travelled from the flanks of Deodhunga, the lately elected monarch of the Himalayahs, 29,002 feet in height; or it may have been swept from the source of the Ganges, or from the source of the T.' Sanpo or Brahmapooter, or from the high basaltic table land of Omûrkuntuk, far South of the Gangetic valley; or it may have been a portion of an avalanche from the forked Donkia, in Tibet, the waters from which flow into the Teesta and so into the Brahmapooter. But wherever it has come from, let us be content to know that it has travelled far, and that it has undergone many a hard rub and many a hard blow, ere it was reduced to the soft black Soonderbun mud, upon which we just now saw the great Saurian reposing.

MARCH, 1859.


ART. II.—Journal of an English Officer in India. BY MAJOR NORTH, 60th Rifles, DEPUTY JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, AND AIDE-DE-CAMP TO GENERAL HAVELOCK, &c. London, Hurst and Blackett, 1858.

THE book now before us, purporting to be a record of Havelock's Indian Campaign, is a welcome addition to the list of works upon the Indian Mutinies, from which the future historian will have ample materials to guide him in the history of the Rebellion. Yet while welcoming this addition to our stock of information, we must confess that the history of Havelock's Campaign has yet to be written. We want one which shall supply us with an account of the varied life of that devoted band, and also furnish us with such a coup d'oeil of its engagements, as will enable us in some measure to appreciate its bravery and heroism under unheard of difficulties and dangers. A historian the force at one time possessed of no mean order, the noble and heroic Lieutenant Crump of the Madras Artillery, whose descriptions of some of Havelock's engagements leave nothing to be desired, but it was fated that this gallant soldier should meet an untimely end, while endeavouring to bring in his guns, the day after the rescue of the garrison of Lucknow by Havelock and Outram.

The first chapter of the book gives an account of Major North's journey from Calcutta to Allahabad, which we will dismiss without further notice. Reaching Allahabad some little time after the Mutiny, he gives a description of that masterpiece of treachery, and we are glad to see that he pays a wellmerited tribute to Lieutenant Colonel Brasyer, C. B., then Lieutenant Brasyer, for his courage and tact. We fancy that as time rolls on, and facts can be estimated at their proper value by the dispassionate observer, it will be found that this brave man, this true soldier, was, to say the least, the saviour of Allahabad, and that had he not been there and acted with the firmness that he then did, the fortress of Allahabad, the key of the North West, would have fallen. And had that barrier to the progress of insurrection been broken through, mutiny, rapine, and inurder would have enveloped the land from Delhi to Calcutta, and have made the reconquest of the country commence at the City of Palaces, instead of at the holy City of Prag.

We were not present at the Mutiny, but arrived in Allahabad shortly afterwards, some nine days before Major North, and then the scene was anything but enlivening-the river deserted, not a boat to be seen, the steamers moored close under the walls of the fort, a few Irregular Cavalry outside the gates, the town in the possession of the rebels, and itself a blackened

ruin; inside the fort, huddled together, and with scant provisions, were the few Europeans who yet had arrived, or were originally in the fort. As European detachments arrived matters became less gloomy. Some parties of Seikhs were sent out and were rather obstinately met by the insurgents, the Adjutant, Lieutenant Taylor, and several men being wounded. A combined force of Europeans and Seikhs on the 16th June, after some rather tough work and many personal conflicts, we skirmished through the town, burning as we went; our loss for such a small force was rather large, the Europeans lost two killed and seven wounded, the Seikhs had also some wounded; the bullets were heavy, square pellets of lead, not telegraph-wires as was reported. That afternoon the Moulvie with all his army of budmashes decamped from his Head Quarters at Alopeebagh, and the two guns lost on the night of the Mutiny were brought in. Next day the prisoners finding the road clear came in, and poor Ensign Cheek was brought in nearly insensible, and shortly after died. One of the prisoners told us that she had been kindly treated, that the males and females lived in one room, and were fed on native food.

On the 18th June General Neill went out and formally reestablished our power in the town, and every effort was made to despatch a force to Cawnpore, for the purpose of relieving General Wheeler. Major North says:

“Our advanced column is commanded by Major Renaud, Madras Fusiliers, a man brave even to rashness. It consists of one hundred Irregular Cavalry under Captain Vallier, 2 guns under Lieutenant Harward, the Seikh Regiment of Ferozepore, and part of a moveable column under formation by Brigadier General Havelock, C. B., all full of spirit, and eager to relieve our beleaguered countrymen from overwhelming odds, against which they bear up and struggle too, so manfully. Courage. brave hearts, aid is at hand.”

From the 30th June to the 12th July, when we were joined by Havelock, day by day as we marched along, (often wet through, and pitching our tents in actual swamps,) our position became more and more critical, and just before Havelock joined us, we well recollect how anxious Major Renaud was to capture Futtehpore before that General reached us, it having been reported to us that it was only defended by a few matchlockmen. This was probably correct at the time, but the Nana with his large force was marching down upon it, and had we advanced not a soul would have lived to tell the tale; but Providence preserved us from a fate which at that time would have been ruinous to our power in India. Day by day as we marched along, we had ample evidence of the certainty with which the Asiatic had determined to tear us out of the land, root and branch; the untiring malignity which had, not content with mur

der and mutilation, burned our bungalows and desecrated our churches only as an Asiatic can desecrate, we had witnessed, but we scarcely expected what we saw in passing along the road. There was satisfactory evidence that the genius of the revolt was to destroy everything, that could possibly remind one of England or its civilization. The telegraph wires were cut up, strewing the ground, and in some instances carried off, the telegraph posts were dug out, the bungalows burnt, and the poor unoffending milestones, even so useful to themselves but still English, were defaced, and in many instances destroyed. Several small skirmishes headed by Captain Vallier and his Irregulars marked our progress, and men caught with arms in their hands were summarily hanged, a stern necessity of the time now happily gone by. At last the news arrived that the force under General Havelock was hastening to join us, the General having heard of our critical position, and in the dim grey of the morning of the 12th July 1857, we drew up in line by the side of the road to receive them. We shall not (need we say) soon forget the scene. Up came the brave band, the 76th Highlanders, playing on their bagpipes the "Campbells are coming," while all along our line a cheer arose as we welcomed them. On we marched some 17 miles more and reached Belindah, a short distance from Futtehpore, at 7 A. M. Major North's description of the battle of Futtehpore is so good that we transcribe it here.

"There we halted to encamp, arms were piled in line, ground was taken up for each corps, and the weary, way-worn men, overcome by the oppressive heat and brilliant sunshine, lay down in groups, a little in the rear, anxiously expecting the arrival of the tents and baggage, which were close behind. At this time our Quarter-Master-General, Lieutenant Colonel Tytler, was in front, making a reconnoissance towards the town of Futtehpore with the volunteer cavalry. It is probable that the enemy deceived himself as to the strength of our force, and imagined that he had merely the small band under Major Re-· naud to contend with; for no sooner did he see the reconnoitring party retire, than his first gun opened fire, and sent a round shot bowling along the road, upon the heels of our cavalry riding stoutly to the line. In a moment the scene was changed, the assembly sounded, and the toil-worn men resumed their energy, sprung to their feet, unpiled arms, formed a line of columns, and advanced skirmishers. The enemy with his numerous cavalry formed an imposing line as he bore down insolently upon us confident of an easy victory, pushing forward two guns, and cannonading our front. Immediately our guns, Maude's battery, posted in the middle of the road which formed our centre, roared defiance as they opened fire upon the advancing foe, while the Enfield Rifles of the 64th (Madras Fusiliers ?) poured in a shower of bullets from a copse at the left of the road; at either side of which lay swampy ground, increasing our difficulty from being partly under

water, rising from three to four feet, to retard our progress. Scarce had our advance commenced before three guns were descried by the light company of the 78th Highlanders. These had been deserted upon the road; on observing which, they rushed impetuously onwards, while Maude's battery advanced at a rapid pace firing with the most admirable precision; and closely followed by the light company of the 78th in an advance over three or four miles. The Enfield Rifles of the 78th began taking long shot at the enemy as they retreated hurriedly through the town, which now became visible, its entrance barricaded by native carts, and apparently all the baggage of the mutineers.


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"Thus the battle of Futtehpore was decided by the intrepid advance of our guns and skirmishers; the reserve columns being far in the rear, owing to the impediments of the ground. Up to this time the troops had marched for 24 miles without a meal to sustain their over-tasked energies, yet at 11 o'clock a. M. Futtehpore was ours. No casualties had occurred during the fight, but several died from sunstroke.”

We halted as may be expected in very high spirits, but very much exhausted in mind and body from the arduous work in which we had been engaged, having captured 12 guns, some of large calibre, and a large quantity of ammunition. Our post happened to be in a tope to the left of the road and in the outskirts of the town, and as we were resting ourselves, a dark looking swarthy man in native clothes rushed into the tope very much agitated; this was Lieut. Browne, of, we think, the 56th N. I. We got him some clothes, and then he told us he had been out with a treasure party towards Nagode when the sepoys mutinied; of three he was the only survivor, and escaped after an incredible number of hardships into a village, when two natives (who are with him) took him into their home, and have protected him till now. Hearing of our march from Allahabad, these two men had managed to bring him safely in.

On the 13th the force rested, and on the 14th again proceeded on its way. On the 15th General Havelock disarmed and dismounted the 13th Irregulars, who behaved badly at Futtehpore, and who were evidently unfit for service, if not really traitors. On the 15th, as we marched along, the enemy were found strongly posted in the village of Aong to the right of the road; the Madras Fusiliers with their Enfields behaved in the most daring manner, their commanding officer being however badly wounded. At last we took the position and captured 4 fieldpieces, with a loss of 22 killed and wounded only. We rested for a short time, and then recommenced our journey, and shortly afterwards were again saluted by round shot, the enemy having established themselves behind a battery, commanding the bridge over the Vandoo Nuddee; our artillery and Enfields soon sent the enemy flying and a 24-pr. and a 12-pr. cannonade fell into our hands as we took their battery.

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