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generations. It is their union which forms that wisdom which is from above ; that wisdom to which the text ascribes such high effects; and to which belongs the sublime encomium given of it by an author of one of the apocryphal books of Scripture: with whose beautiful and emphatical expressions I conclude this discourse: The memorial of virtue is immortal. It is known with God, and with men. When it is present, men take example at it; and when it is gone, they desire it: It weareth a crown, and triumpheth for ever ; having gotten the victory, striving for undefiled rewards. Wisdom is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty. Therefore can no defiled thing fall into her. She is the brightness of the everlasting light; the unspotted mirror of the power of God; and the image of his goodness. Remaining in herself, she maketh all things new; and in all ages entering into holy souls, she maketh them friends of God and Prophets : For God loveth none but him that dwelleth with Wisdom. She is more beautiful than the sun; and above all the order of the stars. Being compared with light, she is found before it. *
# Wisdom of Solomon, iv. 2, 3.vii. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29.
ROMANS, xii. 15.
Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them
in nothing more than in the care it hath taken to enforce on men the social duties of life. This is one of the clearest characteristics of its being a religion whose origin is divine: For every doctrine which proceeds from the Father of mercies will undoubtedly breathe benevolence and humanity. This is the scope of the two exhortations in the text, to rejoice with them that rejoice, and to weep with them that weep; the one calculated to promote the happiness, the other to alleviate the sorrows, of our fellow-creatures; both concurring to form that temper which interests us in the concerns of our brethren ; which disposes us to feel along with them, to take part in their joys, and in their sorrows. This temper is known by the name of Sensibility; a word which in modern times we hear in the mouth of every one; a quality which every one affects to possess, in itself a most amiable and worthy disposition of mind, but often mistaken and abused; employed as a cover, sometimes to a capricious humour, sometimes to selfish passions. I shall endeavour to explain the nature of true sensibility. I shall consider its effects; and, after showing its advantages, shall point out the abuses and mistaken forms of this virtue.
The original constitution of our nature with respect to the mixture of selfish and social affections, discovers in this, as in every other part of our frame, profound and admirable wisdom. Each individual is, by his Creator, committed particularly to himself, and his own care.
He has it more in his power to promote his own welfare than any other person can possibly have to promote it. It was therefore fit, it was necessary, that in each individual self-love should be the strongest, and most active, instinct. This self-love, if he had been a being who stood solitary and alone, might have proved sufficient for the purpose both of his preservation and his welfare. But such is not the situation of man. He is mixed among multitudes, of the same nature. In these multitudes, the self-love of one man, or attention to his particular interest, encountering the self-love and the interests of another, could not but produce frequent opposition, and innumerable mischiefs. It was necessary, therefore, to provide a counterbalance to this part of his nature; which is accordingly done by implanting in him those social and benevolent instincts which lead him in some measure out of himself, to follow the interest of others. The strength of these social instincts is, in general, proportioned to their importance in human life. Hence that degree of sensibility which prompts us to weep with them that weep, is stronger than that which prompts us to rejoice with them that rejoice ; for this reason,
that the unhappy stand more in need of our fellowfeeling and assistance than the prosperous. Still, however, it was requisite, that in each individual the quantity of self-love should remain in a large proportion, on account of its importance to the
preseryation of his life and well-being. But as the quantity requisite for this purpose is not both to ingross his attention, and to carry him into criminal excesses, the perfection of his nature is measured by the due counterpoise of those social principles which, tempering the force of the selfish affection, render man equally useful to himself, and to those with whom he is joined in society. Hence the use and the value of that sensibility of which we now treat.
That it constitutes an essential part of a religious character, there can be no doubt. Not only are the words of the Text express to this purpose, but the whole New Testament abounds with passages which enjoin the cultivation of this disposition. Being all one body and members one of another, we are commanded to love our neighbour as ourself; to look every man, not on his own things only, but on those of others also; to be pitiful, to be courteous, to be tenderhearted; to bear one another's burdens, and so to fulfil the law of Christ. * The dispositions opposite to sensibility are cruelty, hardness of heart, contracted attachment to worldly interests; which every one will admit to be directly opposite to the Christian character. According to the different degrees of constitutional warmth in men's affections, sensibility
* Luke, x. 27. Philip. ii. 4. 1.Peter, iii. 8. Ephes. iv. 23. Galat. vi. 2.
may, even among the virtuous, prevail in different proportions. For all derive not from nature the same happy delicacy, and tenderness of feeling. With some, the heart melts, and relents, in kind emotion, much more easily than with others. But with every one who aspires at the character of a good man, it is necessary that the humane and compassionate dispositions should be found. There must be that within him which shall form him to feel in some degree with the heart of a brother'; and when he beholds others enjoying happiness, or sees them sunk in sorrow, shall bring his affections to accord, and if we may speak so, to sound a note unison to theirs. This is to rejoice with them that rejoice, and to weep with them that weep. How much this temper belongs to the perfection of our nature, we learn from one who exhibited that perfection in its highest degree. When our Lord Jesus, on a certain occasion, came to the grave of a beloved friend, and saw his relations mourning around it, he presently caught the impression of their sorrow'; he groaned in spirit, and was troubled. He knew that he was about to remove the cause of their distress, by recalling Lazarus to life; yet, in the moment of grief, his heart sympathised with theirs ; and, together with the weeping friends, Jesus wept.
Let us next proceed to consider the effect of this virtuous sensibility on our character and our state. . I shall consider it in two views ; its influence on our moral conduct, and its influence on our happiness.
Joho, ii. 35.